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Radiochromic film dosimetry: Recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55
1.W. L. McLaughlin, J. C. Humphreys, D. Hocken, and W. J. Chappas, “Radiochromic dosimetry for validation and commissioning of industrial radiation processes,” in Progress in Radiation Processing, Proceedings of the Sixth International Meeting, Ottawa, 1987, edited by F. M. Fraser [Radiat. Phys. Chem. 31, 505–514 (1988)].
2.W. L. McLaughlin, “Novel radiation dosimetry systems,” invited paper in High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing, Proceedings of International Symposium, Vienna, 1990, STI/PUB/846 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), pp. 3–27.
3.L. Chalkley, “Photometric papers sensitive only to short wave ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 387–392 (1952).
4.W. L. McLaughlin, A. Miller, R. M. Uribe, S. Kronenberg, and C. R. Siebentritt, “Energy dependence of radiochromic dosimeter response to x- and rays,” in High Dose Dosimetry, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Vienna, 1984, STI/PUB/671 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), pp. 397–424.
5.C. D. Hillyer, J. M. Hall, D. A. Lackey, and D. E. Wazer, “Development of a colorimetric dosimeter for quality control of blood unit and irradiators,” Transfusion 33 (1993).
6.W. L. McLaughlin, in Ref. 2, pp. 1–27.
7.W. L. McLaughlin and K. P. J. O’Hara, The importance of reference Standard and Routine Absorbed dose measurement in Blood Irradiation, Proceedings of the American Association of Blood Banks Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, 1990 (American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, MD, 1996), pp. 237–245.
8.J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).
9.G. H. Dorion and A. F. Wiebe, Photochromism (The Focal Press, London, 1970).
10.Photochromism, edited by G. H. Brown (Wiley-Interscience, New York 1971).
11.W. L. McLaughlin, “Film, Dyes, and Photographic Systems,” in Manual on Radiation Dosimetry, edited by N. W. Holm and R. J. Berry (Dekker, New York, 1970), Chap. 6, pp. 129–177.
12.W. L. McLaughlin, “Radiochromic dye-cyanide dosimeters,” in Ref. 11, pp. 377–385.
13.W. L. McLaughlin, “Dosimetry: New approaches,” invited paper in Proceedings of the International Conference on Radiation-Tolerant Plastic Scintillators and Detectors, Tallahassee, 1992, edited by K. J. Johnson and R. L. Clough [ Radiat. Phys. Chem. 41, 45–56 (1993)].
14.J. B. Rust, J. D. Margerum, and L. J. Miller, “Light-Scattering Imaging by Photopolymerization,” in Novel Imaging Systems, Proceedings of Seminar, Washington, DC, edited by R. D. Murray (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Boston, 1969), Chap. 14, pp. 173–186.
15.W. R. Lawton, “Recent Advances in Organic-based Imaging Systems,” in Ref. 14, Chap. 6, pp. 63–77.
16.J. S. Arney, “Kinetic and mechanical descriptions of the microencapsulated acrylate imaging process,” J. Imaging Sci. 33, 1–6 (1989).
17.J. D. Margerum and L. J. Miller, “Photochromic Processes by Todtomerism,” in Photochromism, Techniques of Chemistry, edited by G. H. Brown (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. III, Chap. 6, pp. 557–632.
18.W. L. McLaughlin and L. Chalkley, “Low atomic-number dye systems for ionizing radiation measurement,” Phon. Sci. Eng. 9, 159–166 (1965).
19.W. L. McLaughlin, J. C. Humphreys, M. Farahani, and A. Miller, “The measurement of high doses near metal and ceramic interfaces,” in High Dose Dosimetry, Proceedings of International Symposium, Vienna, 1984, STI/PUB/671 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), pp. 109–133.
20.A. M. Mattson, C. O. Jensen, and R. A. Dutcher, “Triphenyltetrazolium chloride as a dye for vital tissue,” Science 106, 294–296 (1947).
21.F. H. Strodss, N. D. Cherionis, and E. Strodss, “Demonstration of reducing enzyme systems in neoplasms and living mammalian tissues by triphenyltetrazolium chloride,” Science 108, 113–115 (1948).
22.F. P. Altman, “Review: Tetrazolium salts and formazans,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 9, 51–88 (1976).
23.Z. S. Gierlach and A. T. Krebs, “Radiation effects on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solutions,” Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Ther. 62, 559–563 (1949).
24.A. T. Krebs, “Dosimeters: Recent developments,” The Encyclopedia of X-Rays and Gamma Rays, edited by G. L. Clark (Reinhold, New York, 1963), pp. 274–276.
25.J. I. Zweig, M. L. Herz, W. L. McLaughlin, and V. Bhuthimethee, “Drug activation by gamma irradiation: A new direction for molecular design. In-vitro and in-vivo studies of a substituted polyaminoaryl nitrile,” Cancer Treatment Rep. 61, 419–423 (1977).
26.D. F. Lewis, “A processless electron recording medium,” Electronic Imaging, Proceedings of SPSE’86 Symposium, Arlington, VA, 1986 (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, VA, 1986), pp. 76–79.
27.M. C. Saylor, T. T. Tamargo, W. L. McLaughlin, H. M. Khan, D. F. Lewis, and R. D. Schenfele, “A thin film recording medium for use in food irradiation,” [Radiat. Phys. Chem. 31, 529–536 (1988)].
28.W. L. McLaughlin, Y. D. Chen, C. G. Soares, A. Miller, G. Van Dyke, and D. F. Lewis, “Sensitometry of the response of a new radiochromic film dosimeter to gamma radiation and electron beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 302, 165–176 (1991).
29.M. Farahani, F. C. Eichmiller, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Measurement of absorbed doses near metal and dental material interfaces irradiated by x- and gamma-ray therapy beams,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 369–385 (1990).
30.C. G. Soares, “Calibration of ophthalmic applicators at NIST: A revised approach,” Med. Phys. 18, 787–793 (1991).
31.C. G. Soares and W. L. McLaughlin, “Measurement of radial dose distributions around small beta-particle emitters using high-resolution radiochromic foil dosimetry,” in Solid State Dosimetry, Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference, Washington, DC, 1992, edited by E. P. Goldfinch, S. W. S. McKeever, and A. Scharmann [Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 48, 367–372 (1993)].
32.M. Farahani, F. C. Eichmiller, and W. L. McLaughlin, “A new method for shielding electron beams used for head and neck cancer treatment,” Med. Phys. 20, 1237–1241 (1993).
33.W. L. McLaughlin, M. Al-Sheikhly, D. F. Lewis, A. Kovács, and L. Wojnárovits, “A radiochromic solid-state polymerization reaction,” invited paper in Polymer Preprints, 35, Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Effects on Polymers, Washington, DC, 1994, edited by R. L. Clough (unpublished), pp. 920–921.
34.W. L. McLaughlin, M. Al-Sheikhly, D. F. Lewis, A. Kovács, and L. Wojnárovits, “Radiochromic solid-state polymerization reaction,” in Irradiation of Polymers, edited by R. L. Clough and S. W. Shalaby (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1996), pp. 152–166.
35.W. L. McLaughlin, J. M. Puhl, Al-Sheikhly, C. A. Christou, A. Miller, A. Kovács, L. Wojnárovits, and D. F. Lewis, “Novel radiochromic films for clinical dosimetry,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry, II, Budapest, July, 1995, edited by A. Peto and G. Uchrin [Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 66, 263–268 (1996)].
36.Y. Zhu, A. S. Kirov, V. Mishra, A. S. Meigooni, and J. F. Williamson, “Quantitative evaluation of radiochromic film response for two-dimensional dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 24, 223–231 (1997).
37.I. Janovsky and K. Mehta, “The effects of humidity on the response of radiochromic dosimeters FWT-60-00 and GafChromic DM-1260,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 43, 407–409 (1994).
38.W. L. McLaughlin, C. G. Soares, J. A. Sayeg, E. C. McCullough, R. W. Kline, A. Wu, and A. H. Maitz, “The use of a radiochromic detector for the determination of stereotactic radiosurgery dose characteristics,” Med. Phys. 21, 379–388 (1994).
39.P. T. Muench, A. S. Meigooni, R. Nath, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Photon energy dependence of the sensitivity of radiochromic film compared to silver halide film and lithium fluoride TLDs,” Med. Phys. 18, 769–775 (1991).
40.W. L. McLaughlin and M. M. Kosanic, “The gamma-ray response of pararosaniline cyanide dosimeter solutions,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 25, 249–262 (1974).
41.B. B. Radak, M. M. Kosanic, M. B. Sesic, and W. L. McLaughlin, “A calorimetric approach to the calibration of liquid dose meters in high-intensity electron beams,” in Biomedical Dosimetry, STI/PUB/401 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1975), pp. 633–641.
42.W. L. McLaughlin, M. M. Kosanic, V. M. Markovic, M. T. Nenadovic, K. Sehested, and J. Holcman, “The kinetics of dye formation by pulse radiolysis of pararosaniline cyanide in aqueous or organic solution,” Riso/ Report No. M-2022, Riso/ National Laboratory, Roskilde Denmark, 1979.
43.K. Bobrowski, G. Dzierźhowska, J. Grodkowski, Z. Stuglik, Z. P. Zagórski, and W. L. McLaughlin, “A pulse radiolysis study of the leucocyanide of malachite green dye in organic solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 4358–4366 (1985).
44.A. Kovács, L. Wojnárovits, W. L. McLaughlin, S. E. Ebrahim Eid, and A. Miller, “Radiation-chemical reaction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride in liquid and solid state,” Proceedings of the Eighth Tihany Conference on Radiation Chemistry, August 1994, edited by G. Földiak, J. Dobo, and R. Schiller [ Radiat. Phys. Chem. 47, 483–486 (1996)].
45.A. Kovács, L. Wojnárovits, N. B. El-Assy, H. Y. Afeefy, M. Al-Sheikhly, M. L. Walker, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Alcohol solutions of triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride as high-dose radiochromic dosimeters,” Proceedings of the Ninth International Meeting on Radiation Processing II, Istanbul, September 1994, edited by O. Jrven [Radiat. Phys. Chem. 46, 1217–1225 (1995)].
46.W. L. McLaughlin, “Solid-phase chemical dosimeters,” in Sterilization by Ionizing Radiation, edited by E. R. L. Godghran and A. J. Goudie (Multiscience, Montreal, 1974), Vol. I, pp 219–324.
47.W. L. McLaughlin, A. Miller, S. Fidan, K. Pejtersen, and W. B. Pederson, “Radiochromic plastic films for accurate measurement of radiation absorbed dose and dose distributions,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 10, 119–127 (1977).
48.International Specialty Products (private communication).
49.J. C. Humphreys and W. L. McLaughlin, “Dye film dosimetry for radiation processing,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 1797–1801 (1981).
50.N. V. Klassen, L. van der Zwan, and J. Cygler, “GafChromic MD-55: Investigated as a precision dosimeter,” Med. Phys. 24, 1924–1934 (1997).
51.W. L. McLaughlin, J. C. Humphreys, B. B. Radak, A. Miller, and T. A. Olejnik, “The response of plastic dosimeters to gamma rays and electrons at high absorbed dose rates,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 14, 535–550 (1979).
52.S. V. Nablo and E. P. Tripp, “Low energy electron process applications,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 9, 325–352 (1977).
53.R. M. Uribe, M. Barcelo, W. L. McLaughlin, A. E. Beunfil, and J. Rios, “Initial color development in radiochromic dye films after a short intense pulse of accelerated electrons,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 35, 724–727 (1990).
54.See Ref. 46.
55.V. Danchenko, G. F. Griffen, and S. S. Brashears, “Delayed darkening of radiation exposed radiochromic dye dosimeters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 4156–4160 (1981).
56.R. D. H. Chu, G. VanDyk, D. F. Lewis, K. P. J. O’Hara, B. W. Buckland, and F. Dinelle, “GafChromic dosimetry media: A new high dose thin film routine dosimeter and dose mapping tool,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 35, 767–773 (1990).
57.L. E. Reinstein and G. R. Gluckman, “Predicting optical densitometer response as a function of light source characteristics for radiochromic film dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 24, 1935–1942 (1997).
58.Sou-T. Chiu-Tsao, A. de la Zerda, J. Lin, and J. Ho Kim, “High sensitivity GafChromic film dosimetry for seed,” Med. Phys. 21, 651–657 (1994).
59.A. S. Meigooni, M. S. Sanders, G. S. Ibbott, and Szeglin, “Dosimetric characteristics of improved radiochromic film,” Med. Phys. 23, 1883–1888 (1996).
60.J. A. Sayeg, C. W. Coffey, and W. L. McLaughlin, “The energy response of GafChromic radiation detector,” Med. Phys. 17, 521 (1990). (Abstract)
61.J. A. Sayeg and R. C. Gregory, “A new method for characterizing beta-ray ophthalmic applicator sources,” Med. Phys. 18, 453–461 (1991).
62.R. Tanaka, S. Mitome, and N. Tamura, “Effects of temperature, relative humidity and dose rate on the sensitivity of cellulose triacetate dosimeters to electrons and gamma rays,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35, 875–881 (1981).
63.W. L. McLaughlin, “The measurement of absorbed dose and dose gradients,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 15, 9–38 (1980).
64.W. L. McLaughlin, A. W. Boyd, K. H. Chadwick, J. C. McDonald, and A. Miller, Dosimetry for Radiation Processing (Taylor and Francis, London, 1989).
65.L. E. Reinstein, G. R. Gluckman, and A. G. Meek, “A rapid color stabilization technique for radiochromic film dosimetry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2703–2708 (1998).
66.M. L. Walker, J. M. Puhl, C. G. Soares, J. C. Humphreys, B. M. Coursey, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Precision source profiling techniques for ionizing radiation sources,” Proceedings RadTech, Radiation Curing Conference 1992 (unpublished), pp. 614–625.
67.A. Miller, E. Bjergbakke, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Some limitations in the use of plastic and dyed plastic dosimeters,” Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 26, 611–620 (1975).
68.R. Ramani, A. W. Lighthouse, D. L. D. Mason, and P. F. O’Brien, “The use of radiochromic film in treatment verification of dynamic stereotactic radiosurgery,” Med. Phys. 21, 389–392 (1994).
69.A. Niroomand-Rad, S. T. Chiuo-Tsao, C. G. Soares, A. S. Meigooni, and A. Korov, “Comparison of uniformity of dose response of double layer radioelectronic films (MD-55-2) measured at 5 institutions,” Med. Phys. (submitted).
70.L. E. Reinstein, “Eliminating interference fringe artifacts in scanning He–Ne laser film densitometry,” Med. Phys. 22, 1011 (1995). (Abstract)
71.R. Mavrodineanu and J. R. Baldwin, Metal-On-Quartz Filters as a Standard Reference Material for Spectrophotometry, NBS Spec. Publ. 260-68 (USGPO, Washington, DC, 1980).
72.A. Sliski, Photo-electron Corporation (private communication).
73.S. Goetsch, “Calibration of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 16, 1653 (1989).
74.C. G. Soares, “Comparison of NIST and manufacturing calibrations of ophthalmic applicators,” Med. Phys. 22, 1487–1493 (1995).
75.C. G. Soares, “A method for the calibration of concave Ophthalmic Applicators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1005–1007 (1992).
76.S. M. Vatnitsky, “Radiochromic film dosimetry for clinical proton beams,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48, 557–564 (1997).
77.M. Farahani, F. C. Eichmiller, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Metal-polysiloxane shields for radiation therapy of maxillo-facial tumors,” Med. Phys. 18, 273–278 (1991).
78.R. Razavi, A. Niroomand-Rad, R. Sessions, and K. Harter, “Use of Dental Implants for Rehabilitation of Madibulectory Patients Prior to Radiation Therapy,” J. Oral Implantology XXI, 138–141 (1995).
79.A. Niroomand-Rad, R. Razavi, S. Thobejane, and K. Harter, “Radiation dose perturbation at tissue-titanium dental interfaces in head and neck cancer patients,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 34, 475–480 (1996).
80.B. E. Bjarngard, J. S. Tsai, and R. K. Rice, “Doses on the central axes of narrow 6-MV x-ray beams,” Med. Phys. 17, 794–799 (1990).
81.J. M. Galvin, A. R. Smith, and B. Lally, “Characterization of a multi-leaf collimator system,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 25, 181–192 (1993).
82.C. G. Soares, B. M. Coursey, F. F. McWilliams, and M. J. Scannell, “Dose mapping of radioactive hot particles using radiochromic film,” Radioacti. Radiochem. 2, 14–16 (1990).
83.F. F. McWilliams, M. J. Scannell, G. E. Chabot, W. A. Lorenzen, C. G. Soares, B. M. Coursey, and J. M. Puhl, “Hot particle dosimetry using micron size Co-60 spheres,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 40, 223–234 (1992).
84.M. L. Walker, J. M. Puhl, C. G. Soares, J. C. Humphreys, B. M. Coursey, and W. L. McLaughlin, “Precision source profiling techniques for ionizing radiation sources,” Proceedings Rad. Tech. ’92 North American UVIEB Conference and Exposition (unpublished), pp. 614–625.
85.D. G. L. Kodrin, J. W. Bodm, M. W. Charles, D. P. J. Darley, J. S. Durham, M. J. Scannell, and C. G. Soares, “Hot particle intercomparison dosimetry,” Proceedings of the 1996 International Congress on Radiation Protection, Vienna, 14–19 April, 1996 (unpublished).
86.A. N. Van Hoek, L. H. Luthjens, M. L. Hom, C. H. Van-Os, and J. A. Dempster, “A 30 kDa functional size for the erythrocyte water channel determined in situ by radiation inactivation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 184, 1331–1338 (1992).
87.C. G. Soares, D. Halpern, and C.-K. Wang, “Calibration and Characterization of Beta-Particle Sources for Intravascular Brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 23, 1081 (1996). (Abstract)
88.D. Duggan and C. W. Coffey, “Near field dosimetry of a P-32 impregnated coronary stent,” Med. Phys. 23, 1081 (1996). (Abstract)
89.P. R. Almond and C. G. Soares (private communication).
90.N. C. Ly, J. S. Whiting, A. DeFrance, and N. L. Eiger, “A novel brachytherapy source for treatment of coronary artery restenosis,” Med. Phys. 22, 925 (1995). (Abstract)
91.D. Nichiporov et al., “Investigations of applicability of alanine and radiochromic detectors to dosimetry of electron clinical beams,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 46, 1355 (1995).
92.S. M. Vatnitsky, R. W. Schulte, R. Galindo, H. J. Meinass, and D. W. Miller, “Radiochromic film dosimetry for verification of dose distribution delivered with proton-beam radiosurgery,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1887–1898 (1997).
93.C. W. Coffey, M. Sanders, K. Cashon, R. Miller, J. Walsh, and P. Patet, “A tissue equivalent phantom for stereotactic radiosurgery localization and dose verifications,” in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, edited by Ph. L. Gildenberg, Proceedings of the 1992 Meeting of the Leksell Gamma Knife Society, Buenos Aires, 1992 [Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 61, 130–141 (1993)].
94.M. J. Maryanski, Y. Z. Zastavker, and J. C. Gore, “Radiation dose distributions in three dimensions from tomographic optical density scanning of polymer gel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2705–2717 (1996).
95.M. J. Maryanski, Y. Z. Zastavker, and J. C. Gore, “Radiation dose distributions in three dimensions from tomographic optical density scanning of polymer gels: II. Optical properties of the BANG polymer gel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2705–2717 (1996).
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