Validation of GATE Monte Carlo simulations of the GE Advance/Discovery LS PET scanners
GATE simulation model of the GE Advance/Discovery LS PET scanner. The proximal end shield, the couch, and the Mylar cover are depicted via wire-frame lines. In addition, an expanded view of the detector module, block, and crystal arrangement is shown.
Typical signal processing chain simulated by GATE used to convert the particle interactions within the detectors into coincidence counts.
Virtual NEMA phantoms used in the simulation. From left to right and top to bottom: NEMA NU2-200117 scatter fraction, sensitivity, spatial resolution, and the NEMA 1994/SNM16,15 scatter fraction phantoms.
Comparison of the scatter fraction values from the NEMA analysis to those determined from direct binning of the Monte Carlo data for a simulation without the couch.
3D mode count rate response showing both simulated (GATE, dotted lines) and experimental data (Kohlmyer et al.,41 solid lines, and NYH DLS, dashed lines).
Comparison of the estimated single count rates calculated from Eqs. (1), (5), and (7) (lines) to those produced by GATE (symbols) as a function of activity. In this figure, S̱0 represents the single rate with no deadtime. S̱1, and S̱2 are the single rates with successive deadtimes applied to the Block and Module subsets of the scanner’s geometry, respectively. No energy window cuts are used in these simulations.
Comparison of the predicted random count rates calculated from Eqs. (4), (6), and (8) (lines) to those produced by GATE (symbols) as a function of activity. In this figure, Ṟ0 represents the random rates with no deadtime. Ṟ1 and Ṟ2 are the random rates with successive deadtimes applied to the Block and Module subsets of the scanner’s geometry, respectively. No energy window cuts are used in these simulations.
Indexing scheme used by GATE to define detector locations within a Module. Note that the scanner has 56 Modules, each containing 6 blocks, which in turn contain 36 crystals each.
Simple example that shows the sinogram indexing for two projection planes of a scanner with 16 detectors that interlaces with into .
Default GEANT4 physics data libraries.
NEMA Protocols used in this study.
Comparison of 3D sensitivity measurements between the GE Advance/Discovery LS scanner and the GATE simulation with and without efficiency corrections.
Comparison of scatter fractions for the NEMA/SNM, NEMA NU2-1994, and NEMA NU2-2001 protocols.
3D spatial resolution measurements of the GE Discovery LS PET scanner performed at New York Hospital compared to the results of a GATE simulation reconstructed with STIR without and with spatial crystal blurring.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...