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Characterization of scattered radiation in kV CBCT images using Monte Carlo simulations
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10.1118/1.2358324
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/11/10.1118/1.2358324
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/11/10.1118/1.2358324

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Photograph of the kV-CBCT bench with the x-ray source, the turn table, and the detector identified and (b) a schematic illustration of the Monte Carlo model for the CBCT bench with the component modules (CM) that were used.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematics of the scatter corrected reconstruction process where , and are the measured noncorrected, scatter simulated, and scatter corrected projection images. and are the original and scatter corrected 3D reconstructions.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic of the solid water contrast phantom of diameter ; the materials are identified using their label number in Table I.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Measured and simulated normalized exposure profiles along the anode-cathode direction for an open field, beam at from the source and (b) the local percent difference between the simulated and the measured profiles. The local percent difference is defined as the difference between measurement and simulation divided by the measurement for a given position.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Field size response of the detector and (c) its response for various thicknesses of solid water using a beam and a source-to-detector distance, detector signal expressed in arbitrary units (A.U.); the percent difference between the simulations and the measurements for (b) the field size response and (d) the solid water attenuation.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Measured and simulated profiles of the projection image of a water cylinder obtained using a beam and a field size at from the source and (b) the local percent difference between the measured and simulated profiles.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Measured and (b) simulated images of the head of an anthropomorphic phantom obtained with a beam, field size, source to phantom distance, and source-to-detector distance. (c) Spatial distribution of the local percent difference and (d) histogram of the local percent difference. The local percent difference is defined as the difference between measurement and simulation divided by the measurement for a given position.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Measured and simulated profiles of the projection image of a water cylinder in the collimator shadow obtained using a beam and a field size for a source-to-detector distance. The simulated signal is divided in signal produced by the leaked and extra-focal particles and by the scattered particles . (b) The local percent difference between the measured and simulated profiles.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Longitudinal and (b) lateral profiles taken at the central position of the simulated scattered particle spatial distribution for various cone sizes (represented by , , , ), a beam, source-to-detector distance, and diameter cylindrical water phantom. (c) Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of a ROI at the center of the detector for different cone sizes [field of view ] and beam energies.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Longitudinal profiles taken at the central position of the simulated scattered particle spatial distribution for various source-to-detector distances (SDDs) (represented by , , , ), a beam, cone size, and diameter cylindrical water phantom. (b) Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of a ROI at the center of the detector for different SDDs and beam energies.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Longitudinal profiles taken at the central position of a simulated scattered particles spatial distribution for various cylindrical phantom diameters (D) (represented by , , , , ) for a beam and for (a) a source-to-detector distance (SDD) or (b) a SDD. (c) Longitudinal profiles taken at the central position of a simulated scattered particles spatial distribution for a cylindrical phantom centered and offset by . (d) Scatter-to-primary ratio of a ROI at the center of the detector for different cylindrical phantom diameters and SDDs for a beam.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Central slice of the contrast phantom reconstructed using (a) no scatter correction and (b) MC scatter correction. Slice in the uniform solid water portion of the contrast phantom reconstructed using (c) no scatter correction and (d) MC scatter correction. (e) Profile through the uniform water portion of the contrast phantom for the noncorrected and the corrected reconstruction; the profile position is indicated by the dark line in (c) and (d).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Slice of the anthropomorphic head phantom reconstructed using (a) no scatter correction and (b) MC scatter correction.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Contrast between different materials and solid water for the reconstruction of a contrast phantom, obtained with and without scatter correction. The theoretical values are obtained from the nominal CT numbers of the inserts.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Measured and simulated first and second HVL in mm of aluminum for three energies of the CBCT bench.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/11/10.1118/1.2358324
2006-10-24
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Characterization of scattered radiation in kV CBCT images using Monte Carlo simulations
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/11/10.1118/1.2358324
10.1118/1.2358324
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