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Feasibility of real time dual-energy imaging based on a flat panel detector for coronary artery calcium quantification
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10.1118/1.2198942
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/6/10.1118/1.2198942
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/6/10.1118/1.2198942

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Dual-energy fluoroscopy control and interface system.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Timing diagram of the dual-energy fluoroscopy system.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Bone images acquired with (a) and without (b) dynamic filtration ( silver). Flat panel gain was set to 8. NOC was applied for both images. On the left is the calibration phantom, and on the right are the eight simulated calcified vessels. The arrow indicates the location of the vessel phantom with the minimum CaHA (, areal ).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

image (a) and dual-energy bone image (b) acquired with an anthropomorphic chest phantom (60 LAO). The arrow indicates the location of the vessel phantom with of CaHA and areal density of .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Measured CaHA mass plotted with respect to the known mass. The images were acquired over (a) Lucite step phantom, (b) chest phantom with vessels over the rib, and (c) chest phantom with vessels across the edge of the rib. The error bars represent the standard deviation of measurement from ten repeated frames. The lines represent the least-squared fit to the data.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Absolute error plotted with respect to CaHA mass.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Dual-energy bone image acquired (a) without and (b) with misregistration between the low- and high-energy images.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Average error caused by misregistration at different shifts. The error bars represent the RMS error.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The dual-energy CNR as function of patient thickness. The CNR are normalized to that measured at patient thickness of .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The calcification mass measurement precision as a function of patient thickness.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Different combination of x-ray filters used in dual-energy imaging. The filters include the inherent filtration of the x-ray tube ( Al).

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

The estimation of effective dose conversion coefficient for different dual-energy beams.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Measured CNR and effective dose estimation based on a Lucite step phantom for three different filtration setups with flat panel gains of 8 and software binning.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Tube loading with a Lucite step phantom at a FPD gain of 8 (converted to SID).

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Effect of dual-analog gain on image quality. A filtration setup of was used. software binning was applied to the acquired images.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Calcium (CaHA) measurement accuracy with and without anatomic background

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Acquisition parameters, patient entrance exposure, detector exposure, and estimated effective dose for one pair of dual energy image for different patient thicknesses (converted to SID).

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/6/10.1118/1.2198942
2006-05-10
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Feasibility of real time dual-energy imaging based on a flat panel detector for coronary artery calcium quantification
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/33/6/10.1118/1.2198942
10.1118/1.2198942
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