CyberKnife image-guided radiosurgery system with robot-mounted linac, patient couch, dual orthogonal imaging detectors in the floor, and dual x-ray imaging sources mounted at the ceiling. (Image courtesy of Accuray, Inc.)
The Brainlab ExacTrac configuration of dual orthogonal x-ray sources and detectors. (Image courtesy of BrainLaB AG.)
The schematic geometry for a CT-on-rails system showing the two rotation axes of the couch: C1 being the conventional rotational axis with respect to the Linac isocenter and C2 being the axis to rotate the couch into alignment with the CT scanner, which moves on rails along the scan axis.
Conventional geometry for cone-beam CT.
Fluoroscopic tracking system at Hokkaido University.
Measured planar radiographic entrance dose levels per image for the CyberKnife image-guided radiosurgery system.
Measured planar radiographic entrance dose levels for the BrainLab Novalis image-guided radiosurgery system [from the Henry Ford Hospital (Ref. 27)].
Entrance air kerma at the patient from the Hokkaido fluoroscopic tracking system for an exposure period of at 30 image frames per second.
Conversion coefficients to give effective dose (mSv) from dose-area product of entrance skin dose for AP projections. The total filtration is in millimeters of aluminum. All conversion coefficients are .
Conversion coefficients to give effective dose (mSv) from dose-area product of entrance skin dose for lateral projections. The total filtration is in millimeters of aluminum. Conversion coefficients are .
Typical values of the conversion factor from (in mGy) to effective dose (in mSv) for adult patients for recent routine CT exams in Germany (Ref. 74).
Mean Values of the effective dose , , and DLP (Ref. 75).
Dose from kV cone-beam CT (Ref. 45).
Dose from the Elekta XVI kV cone-beam CT (Ref. 42).
Effective dose from portal images taken at (Ref. 68).
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