Gurney and Mott model of latent image (Ref. 29). AgBr remains in ionic form in the crystal of the grain. Radiation produces ionization of to . These electrons make the speck negatively charged. The migrate to neutralize the speck and forms a lump of Ag (aggregate) on the speck.
Different representation of the film response and radiation dose. Upper panel is used in diagnostic radiology, whereas lower panel is useful in radiation therapy.
Grain morphology: 3D, tubular, cubic, and others found in radiographic films. Adopted from Haus (Ref. 24) and Cheng and Das (Ref. 33). The upper panels of the figures have different magnification than the lower panels.
Effect of temperature on OD of various films used in radiology adopted from Haus (Ref. 24).
Effect of developer temperature on various properties of the films. Solid line for 3D grain film and dashed line for the cubic grain (Ref. 24).
Energy dependence of the optical density of XV film. Adopted from Muench et al. (Ref. 51).
Exposure-rate dependence of DuPont 502 film with x rays. Adopted from Ehrlich (Ref. 55).
Typical point densitometer.
Film response curves.
Physical properties of Kodak films.
Film processor tests.
Vendor supplied specifications of some point densitometers.
Acceptance tests and QA of point densitometers.
Acceptance tests and QA of 2D scanners.
Expected film dosimetry accuracy under ideal conditions (optimal processor and densitometer performance).
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