Experimental setup. (a) Photograph of the experimental setup at SCC. (b) Schematic view of the experimental setup.
Response function of WENDI-II (Ref. 11) and LB641 (Refs. 14 and 15) with fluence-to-ambient dose conversion coefficients by ICRP74 (Ref. 16), Sannikov et al. (Ref. 18), Ferrari et al. (Ref. 19), and Sato (Ref. 20), and the NCRP38 fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient (Ref. 17).
Typical pulse height spectrum obtained in this study.
Measured ambient dose equivalent in the proton and carbon radiotherapies. The legends show the beam species, the energy and facility. “p” and “C” indicate the beam species of proton and carbon, respectively. The following value indicate the beam energy in MeV/u. The values from Ref. 1 are multiplied by for comparison. The value of indicates the diameter of the laterally uniform irradiation field in millimeter. (a) Maximum beam energy at each beam line. (b) Proton energy around .
Comparison of neutron ambient dose equivalents with different parameter settings of the beam-shaping devices. The values of , , and in the legend indicate the SOBP width, the distance between the final collimator and the isocenter and the diameter of the laterally uniform irradiation field in millimeter, respectively. (a) Carbon beam at HIMAC. The standard settings are , , and . Closed point and solid line: , open point and broken line: . (b) Proton beam at NCCHE. The standard settings are , . Closed point and solid line: , open point and broken line: .
Comparison of calculated neutron energy spectra from the Lucite and aluminum targets bombarded by protons. The thicknesses of the Lucite and aluminum targets were in water-equivalent length.
Comparison of calculated secondary neutrons from -thick iron and -thick brass slabs with closed aperture bombarded by protons. (a) Neutron ambient dose equivalent. (b) Neutron energy spectrum.
Major properties of the beam lines.
Parameters in the beam line used in this study.
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