In vivo measurement of bone aluminum in population living in southern Ontario, Canada
Layout of the hand irradiation facility for IVNAA.
Human subject hand irradiation at MAL for IVNAA measurements.
Detailed view of hand/phantom access port at the hand irradiation facility at MAL. An L shaped lead piece visible in this figure was used as a marker for palm positioning.
Comparison of human hand and hand phantom spectra acquired under similar conditions of activation and counting.
Calibration curve obtained from the measurements of Al dissolved hand phantoms. The hand phantom MDL of of Al was achieved. For the ratio, the phantom MDL was determined as .
Distribution of the ratio in human subjects measured using IVNAA. The in vivo MDL of is also included in this figure. The individual measurement uncertainties represent a confidence level of 68% .
Comparison of MDL and the FOM of IVNAA techniques developed by different research groups for measurement of Al in bone. The FOM is defined as the product of MDL achieved and the square root of dose equivalent to the hand.
Elemental composition of hand bone of Reference Man and hand bone phantom. Target isotope shown in brackets.
Summary of reported concentrations of Al in bone.
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