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3D dynamic model of healthy and pathologic arteries for ultrasound technique evaluation
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Sketch of the behavior of a RGC, made up of an axis (described by its curvature, torsion and Frenet frame) and a contour orthogonal to the axis (described by the Fourier coefficients). The surface contains the contour . The shape of the successive contours enables the representation of stenosis as illustrated by , , and .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

3D representation of blood vessel geometries obtained from RGC models. Phantoms represent a healthy vessel, (a), a stenosed vessel, , (b) and a bifurcation branching vessel, (c). In (b) and (c) the external RGC is transparent to show the external artery layers.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Flow chart illustrating the interactions between different modules (RGC, COMSOL, FIELD II) of the 3D model.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Finite element simulation of the flow and the pulsation of the stenosed cylinder . Displacement (arrows) and velocity field (grayscale) plotted at the systolic peak. The maximum flow velocity is .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Isosurface plot of the fluid velocity in frozen at the systolic peak of the pulsating inflow cycle; the greyscale represents the amplitude of the velocity. The maximum flow velocity is .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Simulated -mode of the healthy (a), the stenosed (b), and the bifurcating vessel extracted from a sequence of images, frozen during the cardiac cycle in diastole for (a) and (b), and (c).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

-mode image of the straight tube simulated over a pulsating cycle. In the image the lumen area is surrounded by the arterial membrane and by tissue, each of them with different backscattering properties.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Image obtained from Fig. 7 applying denoising anisotropic filtering.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Displacement values obtained by segmentation of the wall boundary of Fig. 7 compared with the reference finite element simulation displacement.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Doppler images simulated with FIELD II at PRF (a) and velocity reference images obtained by finite element simulation (b) frozen at the same instant phase of the cardiac cycle.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Doppler-simulated velocity profile in the center of the vessel at (a) and (b) PRF, and finite element reference velocity at the same position. The location of the measured voxel is indicated by the intersection of the dashed lines in Fig. 10.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Simulated Doppler at PRF (a) and corresponding reference velocity (finite element) images (b) showing blood recirculation downstream in the stenosed area. The simulated fluid flows from left to right. The geometry of the structure is superimposed on the Doppler image on (a).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Flow streamlines obtained by finite element analysis performed on the stenosed vessel geometry. The recirculation zone posterior to the plaque and the irregular flow lines caused by narrowing are illustrated.


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Mechanical parameters used in the simulations [chosen in accordance with reference values given in Fung’s papers (Refs. 20 and 27)].

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Acoustic parameters used for the three-layer model.

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Summary of the main features of different models.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: 3D dynamic model of healthy and pathologic arteries for ultrasound technique evaluation