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Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The sampling grid to scale. The larger dark rectangle represents the detector. The smaller interior rectangle defines the region where the grid samples were acquired and represents the area that is important for the calibration application. The inner rectangle is centered on the detector in the y-direction with a margin on the left-hand side from the outside of the detector. The smaller sector (smaller squares) numbering is coded (dark light indicates No. 1–8): sector (1, 2, 3) correspond to the top, mid, and bottom samples on the left hand side, sector (4, 5) are the middle top and bottom samples, and sector (6, 7, 8) are on the right hand side from top to bottom, respectively. The individual sector size is .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Deviation analysis. This gives the theoretical percent glandular deviation as a function of relative (fractional) logarithmic response (Log-response) shift from the baseline (positive shift) for the adipose tissue equivalent examples: molybdenum/molybdenum (solid), molybdenum/rhodium (cross), and rhodium/rhodium (diamond).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Logarithmic response timelines. These show the logarithmic response (LR) serial samples for the adipose rhodium/rhodium (top) and molybdenum/molybdenum (bottom) timelines. The samples after the x-ray tube replacement start at .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Molybdenum/molybdenum adipose Decision interval (DI) Cusum charts. The top plots show the charts for all regions and the bottom plot shows the charts for all regions. The regions are denoted by these symbols (1) dash, (2) plus sign, (3) asterisk, (4) diamond, (5) triangle, (6) square, (7) multiplication, and (8) circle, respectively, which are also used in the following charts.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Molybdenum/molybdenum glandular decision interval Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Rhodium/rhodium adipose decision interval Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Rhodium/rhodium glandular decision interval Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Molybdenum/molybdenum adipose standard Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Molybdenum/molybdenum glandular standard Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Rhodium/rhodium adipose standard Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Rhodium/rhodium glandular standard Cusum charts.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Rhodium/rhodium region No. 2 Cusum chart. The chart (diamond) was fitted with quadratic polynomial (solid).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

mixture serial calibration regression examples. These show the percent glandular mapping (diamond) applied to the rhodium/rhodium (top) and molybdenum/molybdenum (bottom) mixtures. Regression lines are solid. The analysis was performed separately for the segments before and after the tube failure/replacement.


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Rate of change per relative logarithmic response shift. This shows the fractional deviation for the three examples for both adipose and glandular equivalents for a phantom . The percent glandular (PG) error is given in the bottom row for each tissue equivalent example corresponding to a 1% positive shift in logarithmic response.

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The average baseline logarithmic response quantities. Each row (top) entry is the average value, , of the eight regions for a given process. The average percent difference, , between the last serial sample before the x-ray tube failure and the baseline (BL) is provided beneath the respective BL quantities.

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Decision interval Cusum control summary. The in-control (IC) behavior is summarized in two segments for before the x-ray tube failure (top) and after the replacement (bottom). Entries cited as intervals represent the range from when at least one chart of a given process was out of control (OC) to the day that all charts of the process were OC. The first segment is measured from the first serial sample (add to adjust to the baseline collection) and the second segment is measured from the day of the second baseline dataset acquisition. Isolated numerical entries indicate that all charts of a given process were OC in unison by the specified day. Processes that were IC over a given segment are labeled as such.

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The molybdenum/molybdenum adipose Cusum regression slopes (logarithmic response per Cusum index) for the first (top) and second (bottom) Cusum segments indicted by S1 and S2, respectively. The lower entries in each row represent the linear correlation coefficient for each fitted line.

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Rhodium/rhodium quadratic coefficients and . This gives the coefficients for the derivative of the fitted second degree polynomial for the rhodium/rhodium Cusum charts averaged (Ave) over the eight regions: , where n is the serial index. The data spans , corresponding to n spanning 1–32. The intraprocess standard deviations (SD) are also provided.

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mixture percent glandular (PG) regression analysis. These regression parameters correspond to the plots shown in Fig. 13. The slope is estimated in PG/day units.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements