Volume 36, Issue 6, June 2009
Index of content:
- Industrial Physics Forum: Frontiers in Physics: Ballroom C
36(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3182271View Description Hide Description
SMRT (single molecule real time) DNAsequencing is a novel, high throughput method for sequencingDNA. It harnesses the intrinsic power of DNA polymerase enzymes as sequencing engines by eavesdropping on template‐directed synthesis in real‐time. Two critical technology components enable this process: The first is phospholinked nucleotides where, in contrast to other sequencing approaches, the fluorescent label is attached to the terminal phosphate rather than the base. The enzyme cleaves away the fluorophore as part of the incorporation process, leaving behind completely natural double‐stranded DNA. The second critical component is zero‐mode waveguide (ZMW) observation confinement technology that allows single‐molecule detection at concentrations of labeled analogs relevant to the enzyme. Through the combination of these innovations, our technology allows the speed, processivity, efficiency and fidelity of the enzyme to be exploited. We show application of this technology to shotgun sequencing of human and bacterial DNA resulting in high consensus accuracy and unprecedented readlength. Because with Phospholink nucleotides the polymerase reverts completely to the initial state after each base sequenced the accuracy profile as a function of position within a read is flat. We will present a novel sample prep concept based on DNA hairpin ligation to double‐stranded DNA that facilitates whole genome shotgun sequencing directly from genomicDNA with near‐Poisson limited coverage uniformity and practically no GC bias. This sample prep will be demonstrated to enable consensus sequencing based on data extracted from just one molecule, allowing high accuracy sequencing at the molecular limit and without amplification.
• The attendee should be able to distinguish 2 technologies enabling SMRT DNAsequencing and characteristics of each.
• They should be able to define what SMRT DNAsequencing is and how it differs from other sequencing technologies.
• Attendees should be able to explain how high accuracy without amplification is achieved through sample prep — ie, what methods
• Attendees will have learned about a unique sample prep process involving DNA hairpin ligation and double‐stranded DNA.
36(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3182272View Description Hide Description
Particle accelerators, once the exclusive playthings of high‐energy physicists, have become an essential technology for modern medicine,materials science, and molecular biology. The world's 7000 operating medicallinacs have already enabled treatment of 30,000,000 patients, and new developments such as advanced proton therapies imply a growing demand for accelerators in the decades ahead.
To serve the broadest possible patient population worldwide, medical accelerators need to become smaller, cheaper, and easier to operate. At first glance these needs appear orthogonal to those of particle physics, where the push has always been for larger more complex accelerators capable of reaching ever‐higher energies. However particle physicists have realized for some time that the 27 kilometer Large Hadron Collider, beginning operation this year, represents the last hurrah of conventional accelerator technology. The future lies with fundamentally new approaches that promise much stronger accelerating gradients. The same breakthroughs needed to make large high‐energy accelerators affordable will also make medicallinacs smaller and cheaper.
Fermilab and other national laboratories have taken the lead in developing new accelerator technologies with revolutionary potential. These include superconducting accelerating cavities, plasma wakefields, and laser acceleration. This lecture will provide a non‐technical overview of the prospects for next‐generation accelerators.
1. Understand the increasing importance of particle accelerators across many disciplines.
2. Understand the needs driving research into new accelerator technologies.
3. Gain a working idea of the most promising avenues for next‐generation accelerators.