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An exposure indicator for digital radiography: AAPM Task Group 116 (Executive Summary)
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10.1118/1.3121505
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/36/7/10.1118/1.3121505
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/36/7/10.1118/1.3121505

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Energy dependence of common detector materials (Ref. 4).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Standard beam geometry.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Example of a method to determine from an analysis of the image histogram. (Courtesy of Agfa Medical Imaging.)

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Example of a method to determine from of a processed image (Ref. 16).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Using a source with , , the spectra for alternative additive filtrations are shown. The spectrum with added filtration 21 mm of aluminum (Type 1090, 99.9%) is shown as a solid line. The spectrum with added filtration of 0.5 mm of copper plus 2.8 mm of aluminum (Type 1100) is shown as points. The points have been reduced by a factor of 0.514 to produce the same exposure (mR) as the line. Both spectra have HVL=6.80.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Same solid line as Fig. 5. Again, the spectrum with added filtration 21 mm of aluminum (Type 1090, 99.9%) is shown as a solid line. The spectrum with added filtration of 24.5 cm of muscle (NBS) is shown as points. These values have been increased by a factor of 43.7 to normalize the exposure.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Same solid line as Fig. 5. The points are for 0.5 mm Cu plus 2.8 mm Al (1100) added filtration. The HVL of both is 6.8 at a kV of 72.59. For both, the slope of the relation with kV is 0.094 mm/kV. As a rule of thumb, a 1 kV increase will produce a 0.1 increase in HVL.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Same source as in Fig. 5. The solid line shows the dependence of HVL on kV for 21 mm Al (1090). The points are for 24.5 cm muscle (NBS) added filtration. The sensitivity of HVL in relation to kV is slightly more compared with that for 21 mm Al added filtration.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Same source as Fig. 5. The detected NEQ (i.e. ) for alternative additive filtrations are shown in relation to kV. The response for 21 mm added aluminum (Type 1090, 99.9%) is shown as a solid curve. The points are for 0.5 mm Cu plus 2.8 mm Al (1100) added filtration.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Similar conditions as for Fig. 9, the detected signal (electrons) per incident mR (scatter free) as a function of kV is shown.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Simulated beam spectrum comparison of 21 mm 100% Al and the mean of 21 mm alloy 1100 at .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Simulated beam spectrum comparison of 21 mm 100% Al and the mean of 21 mm alloy 1100 at normalized to the 100% Al spectrum to allow for better visualization of the differences.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Simulated beam spectrum comparison of 0.5 mm Cu and 2.0 mm alloy 1100 and 21 mm 100% Al at .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Simulated beam spectrum comparison of 0.5 mm Cu and 2.0 mm alloy 1100 and 21 mm 100% Al at normalized to the 100% Al spectrum to allow for better visualization of the differences.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Simulated beam spectrum comparison of 0.5 mm Cu and 3.0 mm alloy 1100 and 21 mm 100% Al at normalized to the 100% Al spectrum to allow for better visualization of the differences.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Initial X-ray system HVL on 25 tested units at .

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Approximate Al to add to 0.5 mm Cu for RQA5@. Averaged from 25 systems tested.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Standard beam radiographic conditions.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Exposure indicator DI control limits for clinical images.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

A standard beam condition for dedicated chest imaging systems.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Simulated HVL results from the various alloy batches.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/36/7/10.1118/1.3121505
2009-06-09
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: An exposure indicator for digital radiography: AAPM Task Group 116 (Executive Summary)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/36/7/10.1118/1.3121505
10.1118/1.3121505
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