Overall process of generating 3D models from 2D images. (a) Population deformations, (b) three-step adaptation, and (c) evaluation of models.
Matching of Reference and Test patients using thorax measurements taken on DRR. The three measurements taken were (1) width of thorax at , (2) width of thorax at , and (3) length of thorax from to .
Identification of a matching Reference patient (Ref. 3) for Test patient 1 based on the lowest LSD score calculated from the three thorax measurements (, , and ).
Quantification of lung edge differences (shift) (cm) between the Reference and Test lungs at the superior edge position. The NCs captured the image intensity within the region and converted it into a 1D intensity plot. Intensity plots were aligned by their points of inflection (green) to calculate the shifts between them.
Visual inspection of the spatial/volumetric agreement between population (mesh) and one of the base (solid on a+b) or reference (solid on c+d) lung models before [(a) and (c)] and after [(b and d)] deformation.
Distribution of POL with and without NC adaptation. POL was generally higher with than without adaptation. Exceptions were seen in RTPs 7 and 8.
Visual inspection of the original reference (blue mesh), NC-adapted test (black mesh) and actual test (red opaque) lung models for the RTP 16. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) illustrate adaptation in the lateral and longitudinal direction. Figures 5(c) and 5(d) show slight adaptation in the vertical direction. Ideally, the NC-adapted reference and test models should match.
Visual inspection of one of the two exception cases (RTP 7) shows that the original Reference (blue mesh) and actual Test lungs are very similar in lateral and longitudinal dimensions. Small adaptation noted on superior portion of right lung. Volumetric nonoverlap mainly located in the vertical direction . The NC-adapted lung model is represented in black mesh.
Comparison of the distribution of POL and Dice for the three conditions: (i) Without NC adaptation, (ii) with NC adaptation, and (iii) free-breathing inhale-exhale (FB) lung motion. Outliers ( range) are represented as “.”
Summary of LSD scores for the nine male RTPs, consisting of their (i) thorax width , (ii) thorax length as measured (cm) on DRRs and their associated (iii) LSD scores.
Summary of LSD scores for the eight female RTPs, consisting of their (i) thorax width , (ii) thorax length as measured (cm) on DRRs and their associated (iii) LSD scores.
Summarized POL and Dice results from the VOL tests between the reference or NC-adapted reference and test volumes, as well as between free-breathing (FB) inhale and exhale lung volumes.
Statistical comparison of POL and nonoverlap (PNOL) between the NC adapted and not adapted right and left lung models using paired -tests.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...