banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Increasing computer-aided detection specificity by projection features for CT colonography
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The histograms (bottom figure (f)) of CT density distribution of five VOIs, which are indicated by the closed curves in the above five pictures. From (a) to (e), the objects are a polyp, two stools (i.e., the stool_1 and stool_2 in (f)), an ileocecal valve, and a rectal tube.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A 10 mm pedunculated tubular adenoma in the ascending colon of a 62 yr old female, showing a typical translucent color signature. (a) The 3D endoluminal view of the polyp. (b) Translucency display applied to the 3D image in (a). (c) The 3D endoluminal view of the same polyp, but from another direction. (d) Translucency display applied to the 3D image in (c).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Overview of our CADpolyp scheme.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Definition of the LRF for a polyp candidate. (a) The arrow along the protruding direction represents the normal direction of the polyp candidate, starting from a small ball centered at the centroid of the VOI of the polyp candidate. The rectangle through the centroid of the VOI denotes the plane perpendicular to the normal direction. (b) Extraction of the optimized 2D frame (the dotted arrows) of a point set (the points mimicking the results of projecting the VOI to the plane in (a)). The solid arrows represent an arbitrarily selected initial frame. (c) The resulted LRF of the polyp candidate in (a). (d) The LRF of an IPC on a fold. (e) The LRF of another 9 mm tubular adenoma. Unlike the one in (a), this polyp has a large angle from the colon wall.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The sub-volume (the box) of a 10 mm pedunculated tubular adenoma in Fig. 2(a).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Illustration of the projection procedure. (a) The projection rays in three directions (arrows) shoot through the 3D polypoid object, and are collected on the three projection planes to form 2D projection images as shown in Fig. 10. (b) Points are evenly sampled on each projection ray.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Plot of the transfer function which was used for the projection images, where the solid, dash dotted, and dotted curves indicate the mapping of the red, green, and blue channels. The white channel is shown with the dashed curve, and the solid curve with diamonds plots the opacity values according to attenuation (HU).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The axial projection images (last two columns) of a 10 mm polyp based on the original (upper row) and cleansed (bottom row) CTC images. The arrows in the left column indicate the IPC findings.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Illustration of the projected gray and color images of several IPCs (including FP and TP findings), where each row represents one IPC. Column 1 shows parts of the original axial, coronal, or sagittal CTC slices with the arrow indicating the IPCs. The sub-volumes and LRFs are shown in column 2. Columns 3 to 5 show the corresponding gray images (the axial, sagittal, and coronal images) of the IPCs. The last column shows the axial color image generated by Eq. (3). True polyps in rows 1 to 3 are 10 (same as in Fig. 2), 9, and 6 mm, respectively. FPs in rows 4 to 6 are three tagged stool, while rows from 7 to 9 are a tube, a thickened fold, and a round ileocecal valve.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Illustration of the projection images of the 3D polypoid object in Fig. 5, where the arrows indicate the characterizing patches. (a) The axial image. (b) The sagittal image. (c) The coronal image.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Extraction of the patches in axial, sagittal, and coronal images of the polyp in row 2 of Fig. 7. Pictures (a), (c), and (e) show the projections of the seed voxel sets , i.e., the patches imposed on the axial, sagittal, and coronal images, respectively. Picture (b) shows the highlighted patch (center area) in the axial image. Pictures (d) and (f) show the gray patch (upper and right area) and bright patch (bottom and left area) in the sagittal and coronal images.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

A graphical illustration of the disk-likeness of a highlighted patch (the center area), where the circle is centered at the centroid of the patch.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

The three color projection images of the two IPCs in rows 1 (TP) and 4 (stool FP) of Fig. 9, where the axial images are repeated here for comparison purpose.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Color projection images (first row) of four IPCs, where each column represents one IPC. The second row shows the IPCs (indicated by the arrows) from zoomed CTC axial/sagittal slices. Columns 1 and 2 are two stool. One is a tagged adherent stool on a fold, another is partly submerged in the fluid and is less tagged. Column 3 is a thickened fold without any tagged material nearby and column 4 is a tube in another scan.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

The size distribution of the 347 lesions in the CTC database.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

The fROC curves of the two experiments on two categories of polyps.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Some examples of FN and FP detections. Similar to Fig. 9, one row represents one object. Rows 1 and 2 are two FNs, which are a 30 mm flat mass and a 5 mm polyp on the fold. The last three rows are three FPs, where rows 3 and 4 are two nontagged hard stool balls and the last row is a normal polypoid bump on the fold.


Generic image for table

The list of all features used in this study.

Generic image for table

Data distribution in the training and testing sets.

Generic image for table

Performance comparison of the two experiments.

Generic image for table

Types of the FP findings after the two experiments.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Increasing computer-aided detection specificity by projection features for CT colonography