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Least squares parameter estimation methods for material decomposition with energy discriminating detectors
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10.1118/1.3525840
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/1/10.1118/1.3525840
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/1/10.1118/1.3525840

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Diagrams of the digital breast phantom (a) and calibration phantom (c) are shown. The magnified image of the region that contains the contrast elements is also shown (b).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparison of the mass attenuation coefficients of the various materials (top) and the 80 kVp spectrum with the division of the energy thresholds shown (bottom).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Decomposed images of hydroxyapatite (L/W: 200/600 mg/ml) (a), iodine (L/W: 10/20 mg/ml) (b), adipose (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (c), and glandular (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (d) tissue using the basic least squares fitting method.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Decomposed images of hydroxyapatite (L/W: 200/600 mg/ml) (a), iodine (L/W: 10/20 mg/ml) (b), adipose (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (c), and glandular (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (d) tissue using the decoupled least squares fitting method.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Comparison of the ideal and the simulated CT linear attenuation coefficients for the first energy bin of the spectrum used.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Calibration curves for hydroxyapatite (top) and iodine (bottom).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Decomposed images of hydroxyapatite (L/W: 200/600 mg/ml) (a), iodine (L/W: 10/20 mg/ml) (b), adipose (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (c), and glandular (L/W: 600/1000 mg/ml) (d) tissue using the calibrated least squares fitting method. The breast size is 14 cm.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Measured hydroxyapatite (top) and iodine (bottom) concentrations using the CLSF method.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Measured hydroxyapatite (top) and iodine (bottom) concentrations (250 and 12 mg/ml, respectively) at different breast diameters. The calibration was made on a calibration phantom of 14 cm diameter.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Calibration slopes (effective mass attenuation coefficients) of hydroxyapatite (top) and iodine (bottom) as a function of the breast diameter.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Measured hydroxyapatite (top) and iodine (bottom) concentrations (250 and 12 mg/ml, respectively) at different breast diameters. The calibration slopes were calibrated with four-point calibrations at 8, 12, 16, and 20 cm diameters.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Quantification of hydroxyapatite.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Quantification of iodine.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Quantification of hydroxyapatite and iodine where the calibration was either obtained from the 14 cm calibration phantom or from a linear fit through four calibration phantoms. The known concentrations of HA and iodine were 250 and 12 mg/ml, respectively.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/1/10.1118/1.3525840
2010-12-20
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Least squares parameter estimation methods for material decomposition with energy discriminating detectors
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/1/10.1118/1.3525840
10.1118/1.3525840
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