: Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of intracranial lesions. To minimize neurological deficits, submillimeter accuracy is required during treatment delivery. In this paper, the delivery accuracy of GK radiosurgery was assessed with the gamma evaluation method using planning dose distribution and film measurement data.Methods
: Single 4, 8, and 16 mm and composite shot plans were developed for evaluation using the GK Perfexion (PFX) treatment planning system (TPS). The planning dose distributions were exported as digital image communications in medicine – radiation therapy (DICOM RT) files using a new function of GK TPS. A maximum dose of 8 Gy was prescribed for four test plans. Irradiation was performed onto a spherical solid water phantom using Gafchromic EBT2 films in the axial and coronal planes. The exposed films were converted to absolute dose based on a 4th-order polynomialcalibration curve determined using ten calibration films. The film measurement results and planning dose distributions were registered for further analysis in the same Leksell coordinate using in-house software. The gamma evaluation method was applied to two dose distributions with varying spatial tolerance (0.3–2.0 mm) and dosimetric tolerance (0.3–2.0%), to verify the accuracy of GK radiosurgery. The result of gamma evaluation was assessed using pass rate, dose gamma index histogram (DGH), and dose pass rate histogram (DPH).Results
: The 20, 50, and 80% isodose lines found in film measurements were in close agreement with the planning isodose lines, for all dose levels. The comparison of diagonal line profiles across the axial plane yielded similar results. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high pass rates of >95% within the 50% isodose line for 0.5 mm/0.5% tolerance criteria, in both the axial and coronal planes. They satisfied 1.0 mm/1.0% criteria within the 20% isodose line. Our DGH and DPH also showed that low isodose lines exhibited inferior gamma indexes and pass rates compared with higher isodose lines.Conclusions
: The gamma evaluation method was applicable to GK radiosurgery. For all test plans, planning dose distribution and film measurement met the tolerance criteria of 0.5 mm/0.5% within the 50% isodose line which are used for marginal dose prescription
This work was supported by a grant no. 04-2011-0320110130 from the Seoul National University Hospital Research Fund and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRFK) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 20110001851). The authors acknowledge Mr. Wook Choi and Mr. Soo-Hyun Lee of Elekta Korea Inc. for their support on the DICOM RT export procedure. The authors have no conflict of interest.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
II.A. Test treatment plan
II.B. Gamma Knife film dosimetry
II.C. Application of the gamma evaluation method
III.A. Film dosimetry and qualitative comparison
III.B. Quantitative comparison using the gamma evaluation method
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