General workflow of the fiducial marker extraction algorithm.
Signal profiling workflow to estimate motion signals in the missing margin.
An anthropomorphic thorax phantom on a programmable motion platform.
A typical projection image with marker localization using (a) the marker extraction algorithm and (b) manual check-off.
Comparison of input signal versus extracted signal for (a) a sine wave with 1.5 cm amplitude and 4 s period and (b) an irregular patient breathing pattern.
Overlay of signals extracted using the marker extraction algorithm and the manual check-off for four patient cases.
A typical signal pattern obtained by diaphragm tracking and marker tracking.
A typical signal pattern obtained by internal marker tracking and external marker tracking.
Marker signal and its corresponding phase/amplitude estimates through signal profiling (a) prior to and (b) after the implementation.
Marker signals reconstructed for four patient cases.
Phase- and amplitude-sorted (a) 4DCBCT and (b) 4DDTS images with the reference 3D image at the left.
Magnified view of the midinhale and midlow images in Fig. 11.
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