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Sub-Nyquist acquisition and constrained reconstruction in time resolved angiography
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

Comparison of IV and intra-arterial DSA. Intravenous angiography was sensitive to soft tissue motion and marginal iodine contrast. Intra-arterial DSA permitted the use of smaller catheters and smaller amounts of iodine and resulted in reduced complication rates.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Brody’s hybrid energy—time subtraction method for tissue cancelled DSA. This technique was introduced as a product but was abandoned due to excessive image noise.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Comparison of resolution phantom using Cartesian phase encoding (left) and 4x undersampled radial acquisition (right) in same scan time. The Cartesian spatial resolution in the phase encoding direction is inferior to that of the radial acquisition.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

PC VIPR images obtained with an undersampling factor of 36. PC VIPR provides flow information in addition to anatomical information. Courtesy of Kevin Johnson.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

(a) 46% stenosis in a 2.6 mm left common carotid artery in a pig. (b). Pressure transducer measurement that found a 6 mm Hg pressure drop. (C) PC VIPR angiogram. (d) Pressure map indicating a 7 mm Hg pressure drop. Adapted from Lum et al. (e) Comparison of MR and guidewire pressure measurements.

Image of FIG. 6.

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FIG. 6.

Comparison of conventional filtered back projection reconstruction and HYPR reconstruction using 16 projections per time frame in a “stack of stars” geometry. The Nyquist requirement was 800 projections. From Wieben (Ref. 42).

Image of FIG. 7.

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FIG. 7.

Selected Hybrid phase contrast HYPR/ VIPR time frames. The contrast-enhanced time frames were acquired with an angular undersampling factor of 800.

Image of FIG. 8.

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FIG. 8.

Hybrid phase contrast HYPR /VIPR images obtained with 1 cc of gadolinium contrast. The use of small amounts of contrast improves artery/vein separation.

Image of FIG. 9.

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FIG. 9.

Schematic of the 4D DSA reconstruction using two projections per 3D time frame. Following multiplication by the first projection, streaks appear when the volume is viewed in directions not along the projection direction. These are removed by the second multiplication.

Image of FIG. 10.

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FIG. 10.

Illustration of the data acquisition and multiplicative reconstruction step for 4D DSA. For each time frame two projections and the reconstructed 3D DSA volume are used. In the gray areas where vessels are not present the volume is zero. Where the detected rays cross the vessels in the 3D volume signal is deposited in the backprojection step (circles) Where the 3D volume is zero the multiplication produces zero signal (squares). In arterial phase projections, veins are still zero and the projection multiplies the vein in the 3D DSA volume by zero.

Image of FIG. 11.

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FIG. 11.

Early filling of the vein of Galen. Two projections from a 3D DSA (left) and MIPS through a 4D DSA(right) derived by using two of the 220 projections used to form the 3D volume. Dynamic filling of the vascular structures is clearly seen on the rotating 4D DSA volume as indicated by the arrows

Image of FIG. 12.

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FIG. 12.

4D fluoroscopic views created at several angles without gantry motion. Top row, coil placement in aneurysm. Bottom row-catheter tracking. Images were generated in matlab at reduced resolution. The 4D fluoroscopic mode requires biplane fluoroscopy.

Image of FIG. 13.

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FIG. 13.

Progression of images involved in the formation of the time/energy subtracted CT angiographic volume. Shown are MIPs through the 3D DSA volumes at 60 and 125 kVp, a tissue subtracted MIP at one point in time, and a time-energy 4D DSA MIP. Note that unlike the previous mode introduced by Brody (Ref. 14) signal to noise ratio is adequate. The derivatives refer to the image classification scheme defined in Ref. 52.

Image of FIG. 14.

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FIG. 14.

Progression of techniques in the development of 4D DSA and several accelerated or dose reduced medical imaging applications that have emerged as a result of the use of undersampled acquisition and/or constrained reconstruction.


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In 1980 DSA provided a real time series of digitally processed angiographic images that facilitated and reduced the risk of angiographic procedures. This technique has become an enabling technology for interventional radiology. Initially it was hoped that intravenous DSA could eliminate the need for arterial injections. However the 2D nature of the images resulted in overlap of vessels and repeat injections were often required. Ultimately the use of smaller arterial catheters and reduced iodine injections resulted in significant reduction in complications. During the next two decades time resolved MR DSA angiographic methods were developed that produced time series of 3D images. These 4D displays were initially limited by tradeoffs in temporal and spatial resolution when acquisitions obeying the Nyquist criteria were employed. Then substantial progress was made in the implementation of undersampled non-Cartesian acquisitions such as VIPR and constrained reconstruction methods such as HYPR, which removed this tradeoff and restored SNR usually lost by accelerated techniques. Recently, undersampled acquisition and constrained reconstruction have been applied to generate time series of 3D x-ray DSA volumes reconstructed using rotational C-arm acquisition completing a 30 year evolution from DSA to 4D DSA. These 4D DSA volumes provide a flexible series of roadmaps for interventional procedures and solve the problem of vessel overlap for intravenous angiography. Full time-dependent behavior can be visualized in three dimensions. When a biplane system is used, 4D fluoroscopy is also possible, enabling the interventionalist to track devices in vascular structures from any angle without moving the C-arm gantrys. Constrained reconstruction methods have proved useful in a broad range of medical imaging applications, where substantial acquisition accelerations and dose reductions have been reported.


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Scitation: Sub-Nyquist acquisition and constrained reconstruction in time resolved angiography