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Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces
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10.1118/1.3615623
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/8/10.1118/1.3615623
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/8/10.1118/1.3615623

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Interface of the MAKEHUMAN (Ref. 35) software showing the parameter controls for AGE/SEX, BODY MASS, BREAST, and BODY SHAPE as well as the body surface for the 10-year-old child modeled for this study.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Interface of the BLENDER (Ref. 34) software showing abdominal organs and highlighting a control point on the polygon mesh surface representing the liver.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Anterior (left) and lateral (right) views of the male and female 5- and 10-year-old pediatric mesh phantoms, called M05, F05 and M10, F10, showing body contours, superficial organs, skeletons, internal organs and blood vessels.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Anterior (left) and lateral (right) views of the organs and tissues of the respiratory system for the 10-year-old mesh phantoms F10 and M10.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the organs of the digestive system for the 10-year-old mesh phantoms F10 and M10.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Anterior views of the circulatory (left) and the lymphatic (right) systems for the 5- and 10-year-old mesh phantoms F05, M05, F10, and M10.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Anterior (left) and lateral (right) views of the organs of the urogenital system for the male 5-year-old mesh phantom M05.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Anterior (left) and lateral (right) views of additional organs for the 5-year-old mesh phantoms F05 and M05.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Chest CT image of a 9-year-old boy in supine posture (a) and the corresponding transversal slice of the standing M10 phantom (b).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Abdominal CT image of a 9-year-old boy in supine posture (a) and the corresponding transversal slice of the standing M10 phantom (b).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Lateral views of the pediatric mesh phantoms M05 and F10 and of the adults mesh phantoms MASH3 and FASH3.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Conversion coefficients between RBM and BSC equivalent dose and air kerma free-in-air for the M05 and the MASH3 phantoms for whole body exposure AP with monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Conversion coefficients between lungs and stomach wall equivalent dose and air kerma free-in-air for the F10 and the FASH3 phantoms for whole body exposure AP with monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Conversion coefficients between effective dose (ED) and air kerma free-in-air for the pediatric and the adult phantoms for whole body exposure AP with monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Specific absorbed fractions of energy in the spleen of the F05, M10, and the 5- and 10-year-old MIRD5 phantoms when the liver is the source organ. The MIRD5 data have been calculated with the OLINDA software (Ref. 47).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Tissue masses, densities and calculated volumes for the 5- and 10-year-old skeletons. Data taken from ICRP89 (Ref. 10) and ICRU46 (Ref. 40).

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Bone mass fractions, RBM mass fractions and cellularity factors for the 5- and 10-year-old skeletons. Mass ratios between cortical and trabecular bone are for the adult skeleton. The quantities were taken or calculated from data found in ICRP89 (Ref. 10) and ICRP70 (Ref. 42).

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Trabecular bone volume fractions for adult and pediatric skeletons. The adult TBVFs are from the original μCT images used in the paper of Kramer et al. (Ref. 43), while the pediatric TBVFs have been derived from the adult TBVFs.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Some important properties of the voxelized pediatric phantoms M05, F05, M10, and F10.

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Bone-specific skeletal tissue volumes for the 5-year-old skeleton calculated from the data shown in Tables I and II.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Bone-specific skeletal tissue volumes for the 10-year-old skeleton calculated from the data shown in Tables I and II.

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Organ and tissue masses for the 5- and 10-year-old ICRP reference children and for the voxelized pediatric phantoms M05, F05, M10, and F10.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/8/10.1118/1.3615623
2011-07-28
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/38/8/10.1118/1.3615623
10.1118/1.3615623
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