Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiationdose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography(PET)18F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data.Methods:
Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq18F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet.Results:
On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223)μSv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) μSv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) μSv/MBq h, respectively.Conclusions:
The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092μSv m2/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of patients immediately following injection. This value can then be reliably scaled to the desired time and distance for planning and staff dose evaluation purposes. At distances closer than 1 m, a distance-specific dose rate constant of 0.367 μSv/MBq h at 30 cm is recommended for accurate calculations. An accurate patient-specific dose rate constant that accounts for patient-specific variables (e.g., distribution and attenuation) will allow an accurate evaluation of the dose rate from a patient injected with an isotope rather than simply utilizing a physical constant.
The authors wish to acknowledge the MSKCC Department of Radiology for accommodating data collection and MSKCC Media Services for illustration support.
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