Radiosurgery uses small fields and high-radiation doses to treat intra- and extracranial lesions in a single session. The lack of a lateral electronic equilibrium and the presence of high-dose gradients in these fields are challenges for adequate measurements. The availability of radiation detectors with the high spatial resolution required is restricted to only a few. Stereotactic diodes and EBT radiochromic films have been demonstrated to be good detectors for small-beam dosimetry. Because the stereotactic diode is the standard measurement for the dosimetry of radiosurgical beams, the goal of this work was to perform measurements with the radiochromic film Gafchromic® EBT2 and compare its results with a stereotactic diode.
Total scatter factors, tissue maximum, and off-axis ratios from a 6 MV small photon beams were measured using EBT2 radiochromic film in a water phantom. The film-measured data were evaluated by comparing it with the data measured with a stereotactic field diode (IBA-Dosimetry).
The film and diode measurements had excellent agreement. The differences between the detectors were less than or equal to 2.0% for the tissue maximum and the off-axis ratios. However, for the total scatter factors, there were significant differences, up to 4.9% (relative to the reference field), for field sizes less than 1.0 cm.
This work found that the Gafchromic® EBT2 film is adequate for small photon beam measurements, particularly for tissue maximum and off-axis ratios. However, careful attention must be taken when measuring output factors of small beams below 1.0 cm due to the film's energy dependence. The measurement differences may be attributable to the film's active layer composition because EBT2 incorporates higher Z elements (i.e., bromide and potassium), hence revealing a potential energy dependence for the dosimetry of small photon beams.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
II.A. SFD measurements
II.A.1. Total scatter factors
II.A.2. Off-axis and tissue-maximum ratios
II.B. Radiochromic film measurements
II.B.1. Experimental setup and film calibration
II.B.2. Irradiation protocol for the measurement of the total scatter factors, off-axis, and tissue maximum ratios
II.B.3. Scanning protocol
II.B.4. Film analysis
II.C. Detector comparison
III.A. EBT2 film calibration and uncertainty
III.B. EBT2 film evaluation
III.B.1. Total scatter factors and tissue maximum ratios
III.B.2. Off-axis ratios and beam penumbrae
- Linear accelerators
- Particle beam detectors
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