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Bidirectional local distance measure for comparing segmentations
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Shortfalls of normal and minimum distance measures: (a) ND cannot be found at the point p 1 since the normal vector on the reference surface does not intersect with the test surface. The ND measure may report longer distances when two surfaces are not parallel such as at the point p 2. (b) The MD measure may report shorter distances when the test surface is winding and the reference surface is flat as highlighted circle. Although the local discrepancy between the surfaces in the circle area is larger at B1 than B2, the MD at the points, p 3 and p 4 will be reported as the same as at points p t 1 and p t 2, respectively. The reference surface R is drawn as a solid line and the test surface T is drawn as dotted line.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

An example illustrates the BLD measure scheme; FMinD at the point p ref is marked as ①. During the BMaxD calculation ② and ③ are the candidates. Since BMaxD selects the maximum distance among the candidates, ② is chosen as BMaxD. The final BLD(p ref, T) is the maximum between FMinD and BMaxD. Therefore, BMaxD, ② is chosen as the final BLD(p ref, T) in this example.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Analyses of measured distances between shifted contours along the contour perimeter position. (a)–(d) Distances measured for BLD, ND, ComGrad, and MD. (c) Distances profile at each pixel on the reference contour. Solid lines represent the BLD measure, and the dotted lines represent the MD measure at every point on the reference contour. The dashed lines show the ND measure. The long dashed orange lines show the ComGrad measure. The ND erroneously measures longer than 20 mm shifts at several points (shown in three regions as marked with A, B, E). MD erroneously measures shorter than 20 mm at two regions as marked with C and D. The ComGrad measures longer than 20 mm shifts at the region as marked with E.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of ND, MD, ComGrad, and BLD measures: Case 1—high similarity and weakly winding contours; Case 2—low similarity and weakly winding contours; Case 3—medium similarity and strongly winding contours; Case 4—winding contours with concave and folded curves. The solid lines are reference contours and the dashed lines are test contours. For easy illustration, the linked lines between contours indicate measured distances.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Two liver contours from two treatment plans are constructed as mesh structures. After rigid-body image registration and smoothing are performed, BLD and ND distances are displayed in a color map. (a) Two 3D livers are reconstructed from the first and second plans. (b) BLD measure and (c) ND measure. BLD measure reports distances in these areas up to 29 mm. However, ND measure calculates the distances in these areas up to 117 mm. [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4754802.1]10.1118/1.4754802.1

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Distances between two clinical target volumes from two head-and-neck treatment plans are measured. Distances between contours are displayed in a color map after rigid-body image registration and smoothing. (a) 3D CTV structures from the head-and-neck case. Two 3D head-and-neck cases are reconstructed from the first and second plans. (b) BLD measure and (c) ND measure. The maximum distance measured by BLD measure is 17 mm, but ND measure reported the maximum distance of 32 mm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The effect of Gaussian smoothing is compared between our proposed BLD measure and the ND measure.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Distances between two contours displayed as histograms. Three different distance measures are applied to the same contours. (a) Distance histogram comparison without smoothing—the MD measure showed high frequency at short distances and the ND measure shows erroneous measurements beyond 30 mm (compressed at 30 mm for readability) not observed in other histograms calculated using other measures. (b)–(d) Analyses are performed following three different levels of volume surface smoothing.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

A standard deviation map built from nine expert's contours for a prostate. (a) Nine expert's contours. (b) Standard deviation map.



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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Bidirectional local distance measure for comparing segmentations