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Toward quantifying the composition of soft tissues by spectral CT with Medipix3
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10.1118/1.4760773
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/11/10.1118/1.4760773
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/11/10.1118/1.4760773
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The photoelectric, Compton, and total mass attenuation coefficients for silicon are shown (left axis) together with a simulation of the output from the x-ray tube at 50 kVp with 1.8 mm aluminium filtration (right axis).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Multispectral CT reconstructions of a perspex phantom containing 2 mol l−1 calcium chloride, 0.4 mol l−1 ferric nitrate, 0.01 mol l−1 iodine, fat surrogate (sunflower oil), water, and air. The basis material ROIs are circled on the low energy reconstruction. (b) The spectral CT numbers for each basis material plotted against the lower threshold energy of each counting bin.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) The information entropy (solid lines) and degrees of freedom (dashed lines) retrieved by a sequence of spectral CT measurements for four sets of materials analyzed without a volume constraint. The data are plotted against the lower threshold energy of each counting bin. (b) The information entropy and degrees of freedom after analysis with a volume constraint on fat and water. The use of the volume constraint reduces entropy and returns the available d.f. with fewer measurements.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

A single energy spectral CT image of the calcium chloride phantom and material component images for calcium, fat, and water obtained from the analysis of multispectral data. The calcium component image is displayed in units of number concentration (mol l−1). The images for fat and water are in units of volume fraction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The calcium concentration measured by spectral CT plotted against the nominal value for each calcium chloride phantom insert. The correlation coefficient for calcium is R 2 = 0.990. The mass fractions of fat and water are also plotted and remain approximately constant.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A single energy spectral CT image of a fat and liver phantom, and material component images for calcium, fat, and water obtained from the analysis of multispectral data. The calcium component image is displayed in units of number concentration (mol l−1). The images for fat and water are in units of volume fraction. This phantom contained 34 % fat by weight.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The fat mass fraction measured by spectral CT for each fat and liver phantom plotted against the nominal values. The correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.985. The mass fraction of water and the concentration of calcium are also plotted. The mass fraction of water is negatively correlated with that of fat whereas the concentration of calcium is approximately zero for all measurements.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

A single energy spectral CT image of a human atherosclerotic plaque and material component images for calcium, fat, and water obtained from the analysis of multispectral data. The images are transverse slices through a region containing calcium, lipid, and water-like components. The calcium component image is displayed in units of number concentration (mol l−1). The images for fat and water are in units of volume fraction.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

A single energy spectral CT image of a transgenic mouse and material component images for calcium, fat, and water obtained from the analysis of multispectral data. The images are axial slices located just below the ribs and contain regions of calcium, fat, and water-like soft tissue. The calcium component image is displayed in units of number concentration (mol l−1). The images for fat and water are in units of volume fraction.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/11/10.1118/1.4760773
2012-10-22
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Toward quantifying the composition of soft tissues by spectral CT with Medipix3
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/11/10.1118/1.4760773
10.1118/1.4760773
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