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Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT with a 3D liquid scintillator detector system
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The LS detector prototype with the coordinate system used throughout this work.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) A sample of the images of proton spots acquired with the CCD camera. Each frame represents a different proton spot of a nominal range in water of 10.5 cm delivered in 1 cm increments along the x-axis (crossline) (b) Depth profiles of the spots shown in (a) and (c) lateral profiles of the spots shown in (a).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Measured pixel size of the LSD system; (a) pixel size as a function of the distance between the image plane and the CCD (i.e., along the y-axis), the solid line represents a linear fit; (b) pixel size as a function of the lateral position on the image (i.e., along the x-axis), the solid line represents an exponential fit.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Measured proton ranges using different reference points. Plus sign (+) represents the average position between the Bragg peak and the distal 30%, black circle represent the distal 80%, open circle the distal 70%, and open square the distal 90%.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Scintillation light profile of three proton spots with different lateral position (−5.6 cm, 0 cm, and +5.6 cm). All spots are drawn centered on their peak; (b) relative difference in the intensity of two spots (−5.6 cm and +5.6 cm) relative to the central spot (x = 0 cm).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Comparison of measured proton beam range in the LS detector system with expected range.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Relative intensity measurements of proton spots along the x-axis. The pair of horizontal dotted lines represents ±2%.


Generic image for table

Summary of the optical and physical phenomena that alter the measured light distribution.

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Comparison between expected and measured lateral position of the proton spot along the x-axis.

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Measured spot position and width (FWHM) differences from a spot on the central axis as a function of its distance in the direction parallel to the camera’s axis (y-axis).

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Measured proton spot intensity. The measured value at 5 MU is not shown because it is used as a reference.

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Differences in proton intensity as a function of position along the y-axis. The second column show the deviation in % from the light intensity of the spot at y = 0 cm after correction of the varying distances between the spot and the CCD camera. The third column further correct for the attenuation inside the LS.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Verification of proton range, position, and intensity in IMPT with a 3D liquid scintillator detector system