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A novel technique for markerless, self-sorted 4D-CBCT: Feasibility study
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Summary of procedures for the FT-phase vs FT-magnitude techniques.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The first row of bar graphs demonstrates the average phase difference as a function of low frequency location along the y-axis for both Fourier techniques. The second row shows the same results for a range of low frequency locations in both the x and y dimensions.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Percentage of projections assigned within 10% phase plotted as a function of FT-phase and FT-magnitude techniques for a variety of low frequency locations. The top row emphasizes the results along the y-dimension, meanwhile the bottom row of graphs displays the results along both dimensions.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Extracted signal from both Fourier techniques for patient 1. Peak-inspiration determined from manual identification is marked with circles and peak-inspiration determined from the Fourier technique is marked with squares.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

FT-phase vs FT-magnitude derived signal for patient 2. Circles indicate peak-inspiration identified with the reference technique whereas squares indicate peak-inspiration identified by the displayed technique.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The plotted signal from each FT method for patient 3. Peak-inspiration determined from visual identification is displayed with circles and from automatic Fourier identification with squares.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

4D-CBCT reconstructed phase images of the IEC phantom exhibiting 6 s respiration for the reference technique vs FT-phase technique vs FT-magnitude technique. Line profiles are plotted for 0% and 50% phase bins.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Five selected phase reconstructions of CBCT images of patient 1 for visual assessment of any differences between the two proposed Fourier techniques to the gold standard. Plotted line profiles are displayed for the peak-inspiration and peak-expiration phases.


Generic image for table

Results for the average difference in phase using the entire projection vs ROI for both Fourier techniques relative to the manual one.

Generic image for table

Inputting the entire projection vs ROI results for the percentage of projections that were within 10% phase of each other for each Fourier technique as compared with the manual technique.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A novel technique for markerless, self-sorted 4D-CBCT: Feasibility study