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A novel breast software phantom for biomechanical modeling of elastography
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10.1118/1.3690467
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/4/10.1118/1.3690467
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/4/10.1118/1.3690467

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Creation of (a) Ribs and muscles; (b) breast boundary; (c) nipple; (d) establishing four main ducts; (e) 1 set of ducts; (f) ductal tree structure; (g) lobes; (h) all 10–20 lobes; and (i) tumor in duct. All details of these images are in Appendix I.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

FEM modeling parameter selection and optimization process.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Our software breast phantom (level 1: lumped and level 2: ductal structures) in three views.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Illustration of 3D breast phantom with (a) deep spherical tumor located within a lobule; (b) a large 1 cm spherical tumor in a shallow location, just below the nipple; (c) increase in gland to fat ratio; (d) change in overall shape of the breast; and (e) increase in number of lobules in a lobe with dumbbell shaped tumor.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Example of a 3D mathematical phantom from Bliznakova et al. (Ref. 7); (b) example of a 3D voxelized phantom from Samani et al. (Ref. 8); and (c) example of a meshed biomechanical model from Shih et al. (Ref. 46). Reprinted with permission from, Fig 5(a), Bliznakova et. al., A three-dimensional breast software phantom for mammography simulation, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 48, pp. 3699–3719(2003). Copyright © American Institute of Physics. Reprinted by permission of American Institute of Physics; Fig 5(b), Samani et. al., Biomechanical 3-D finite element modeling of the human breast using MRI data, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 20(4), pp. 271–279. Copyright © IEEE. Reprinted by permission of IEEE; Fig 5(c), Shih et. al., Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55, pp. 4153–4168 (2010). Copyright © American Institute of Physics. Reprinted by permission of American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) 2D meshed view, (b) overall 3D meshed view, and (c) meshing of the glandular region. Parameters for meshing are detailed in V.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

2D slices and 3D maps of residual modulus reflecting the 3D mesh optimization procedure. (a) Shows stage 1 of the procedure with initial guesses of the mesh parameters; (b) shows stage 2 with some tweaking; (c) shows stage 3 with final optimized parameters after several iterations of stage 2; and (d) 3D view of residual modulus maps after mesh parameter optimization.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Profiles of residual modulus with depth for tumors. (a) shows absolute residual modulus for 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast for a deep tumor, (b) shows relative percentage residual modulus for 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast for a deep tumor, (c) shows absolute residual modulus for 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast for a shallow tumor, and (d) shows relative percentage residual modulus for 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast for a shallow tumor.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Top view of the 3D displacement image of the branched breast phantom demonstrating the loading boundary. The figure also shows the extent of displacement, in the colorbar, achieved with the 4 N force applied to the loading boundary.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Input modulus distribution in the branched breast phantom (2D slice) according to Table II. Also shown is the deformation contour after a 4 N force is applied on the top surface of the breast (see arrows) and (b) 2D displacement image due to a 4 N force applied on the top surface of the breast just above the nipple.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) Input modulus distribution in the simple block phantom (2D slice). Also shown is the deformation contour after a 4 N force is applied on the top surface of the block (see arrows) and (b) 2D displacement image due to a 4 N force applied.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a)–(d) 2D Normal axial strain images of the breast phantom for shallow and deep tumors with 6 or 20 dB input tumor-background contrasts. Also shown is the location of the applied deformation and the specific ROI over which CTE analysis was performed for shallow tumors. (e)–(h) Corresponding images for the block phantom. For all the phantoms a 4 N force was applied.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) 3D Normal axial strain images of the breast phantom for shallow 6 dB spherical tumor. (b) 3D Normal axial strain images of the breast phantom for shallow 20 dB spherical tumor.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

CTE in dB

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

% decrease in contrast by measuring strain instead of modulus

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Variation in normal axial stress over depth for the breast and block phantom for a tumor in a deep location with 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

2D Normal axial strain image of the breast phantom for a (a) spherical tumor; (b) irregular tumor; and (c) dumbbell tumor in a deep location with 6 dB input tumor-background modulus contrast. Zoomed strain images around the tumor along with the actual shape of the tumor are shown.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Step by step illustration of the creation of the ductal branches, lobules, and tumor.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Measurements from anatomy for 3D model.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Material properties.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Meshing parameters.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/4/10.1118/1.3690467
2012-03-09
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A novel breast software phantom for biomechanical modeling of elastography
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/4/10.1118/1.3690467
10.1118/1.3690467
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