(a) The SBDX system uses a raster scanned focal spot, transmission target, multihole collimator, high speed detector, and hardware image reconstructor. The 3D localization algorithm (dashed boxes) utilizes the multiple image planes reconstructed for each temporal frame. (b) SBDX prototype system on C-arm. (c) Concept drawing of an on-board SBDX system integrated with a Linac.
Lung phantom slab showing locations of the gold seed fiducial (right) and steel sphere fiducial (left) on the mediastinal ridge.
Experimental setup. The imaging orientation was designed to test the most challenging geometry where phantom and fiducial motion is aligned with the source-detector (z) axis.
(a) Example x-y image reconstructed at a z-plane near the gold seed. (b) Gold seed region-of-interest in all 15 z-planes of the same temporal frame, demonstrating depth resolution. (c) A y-z image generated from a single image column passing through the gold seed in part b. The calculated z-coordinate is the center-of-mass of the distribution of object scores versus z-plane (shown with bars) after thresholding. (d) Example image plane acquired with electronic scan collimation around the gold seed.
Tracked x, y, and z coordinates of the gold seed versus time, with the phantom undergoing 3.5 s sinusoidal motion (symbols: data; solid line: model fit).
Tracked z-coordinate of the steel sphere versus time for 3.5 s sinusoidal motion (symbols: data; solid line: model fit).
Programmed motion, motion parameters derived from fits to 3D tracking data, and Z-coordinate deviations.
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