banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Validation of a virtual source model for Monte Carlo dose calculations of a flattening filter free linac
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Absolute output factors as a function of field size for FFF and conventional 6 MV beams as predicted by the TPS compared to measurement. (b) Difference in output factors, calculated minus measured.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Sample beam data: (a) PDD curve for 2 × 2 cm2 field, (b) cross-profiles for a 30 × 30 cm2 field for the FFF model.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Absolute dose difference between measured and calculated depth doses curves (100 cm source-surface distance) for the field sizes indicated for (a) FFF and (b) FF beams. Monte Carlo variance is set at 0.5%.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of calculated vs measured beam profiles for sample field sizes of (a) 2 × 2 cm2, (b) 5 × 5 cm2, (c) 10 × 10 cm2, (d) 15 × 15 cm2, (e) 20 × 20 cm2, and (f) 30 × 30 cm2 at 100 cm SSD and a depth of 5 cm. Criteria for gamma analysis are 2%/2 mm.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Beam setup for IMRT planning of a head and neck case showing sagittal and coronal color-wash maps (a) and dose volume histogram (b). The FFF beam is displayed as the dotted line, 6 MV solid.


Generic image for table

Number of segments and monitor units needed for each treatment plan and the relative increase in each necessary to deliver the FFF plans.

Generic image for table

Gamma analysis and absolute dose difference of individual beams for the IMRT plans. Percentage of points passing gamma analysis (γ < 1) at 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm for the individual beams of each plan.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Validation of a virtual source model for Monte Carlo dose calculations of a flattening filter free linac