During stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape.Methods:
The data of seven consecutive patients receiving SBRT for the treatment of clinical stage T1cN0M0 prostate cancer enrolled in a multi-institutional, IRB-approved trial were analyzed. The SBRTdose was 50 Gy in five fractions to a planning target volume (PTV) that included the prostate (implanted with three fiducial markers) with a 3–5 mm margin. All plans were based on simulation images that included an ERB inflated with 60 cm3 of air. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT)imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV relocalization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB reinflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCTimage sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder (BLA), and anterior rectal wall (ARW). This dose tracking methodology was applied to images taken before and after manual adjustment of the ERB (intervention), and the delivered dose was compared to that which would have been delivered in the absence of intervention.Results:
Interventions occurred in 24 out of 35 (69%) of the treated fractions. The direct effect of these interventions was an increase in the prostate radiationdose that included 95% of the PTV (D95) from 9.6 ± 1.0 to 10.0 ± 0.2 Gy (p = 0.06) and an increase in prostate coverage from 94.0% ± 8.5% to 97.8% ± 1.9% (p = 0.03). Additionally, ERB interventions reduced prostate deformation in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction, reduced errors in the sagittal rotation of the prostate, and increased the similarity in shape of the prostate to the radiotherapy plan (increased Dice coefficient from 0.76 ± 0.06 to 0.80 ± 0.04, p = 0.01). Postintervention decreases in prostate volume receiving less than the prescribed dose and decreases in the voxel-wise displacement of the prostate, bladder, and anterior rectal wall were observed, which resulted in improved dose–volume histogram (DVH) characteristics.Conclusions:
Image-guided interventions in ERB volume and/or position during prostate SBRT were necessary to ensure the delivery of the dose distribution as planned. ERB interventions resulted in reductions in prostate deformations that would have prevented accurate localization of patient anatomy.
The authors would like to thank Teisha Rowland for her help in preparing the paper for publication. This work was partially supported by DOD Grant No. PC061629.
II.B. Simulation, planning, and delivery
II.C. Deformable registration
II.D. Displacement/deformation and dose
III.A. Single-fraction impact
III.B. Patient-specific impact
III.C. Cumulative impact
III.D. Effect of intervention on prostate shape
IV.A. Prostate metrics
IV.B. ERB position
IV.C. Anterior rectal wall and bladder
- Cone beam computed tomography
- Radiation therapy
- Medical imaging
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