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A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom
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10.1118/1.4718576
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/6/10.1118/1.4718576
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/6/10.1118/1.4718576

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

ROIs from projection view images (top) with corresponding periodograms (bottom). The left two columns are from the original Bakic phantom and rightmost column is from the center projection of a clinical tomosynthesis dataset, shown for comparison. Pixel size is 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm in the ROI images.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A flowchart for phantom generation.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Steps for phantom creation: (a) construction of base phantom with empty compartments, (b) labeling requested number of compartments, (c) replacing filled compartments with binarized filtered noise, (d) compression, and (e) smoothing and resolution adjustment.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic of compartment selection method. Three-quarter view to show rectangular pyramid grid (left) and sagittal view showing grid points between nipple and chest wall (right).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Method for filling compartments with binarized power-law noise, displayed simplified in 2D. Power-law noise was generated using β = 3.0 [shown in (a)], then it was binarized using a threshold to achieve a given glandular fraction [shown in (b)]. A labeled compartment (c) was overlapped with the binarized noise, and that region of noise was extracted for use in the phantom [shown in (d)].

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A single (central) slice through the phantom (top) and simulated projection of the full phantom (bottom). Parameters chosen were n c  = 300, f c  = 0.10, and f g  = 0.3–0.6. The VGF sk was calculated to be 0.089, including skin and Cooper’s ligaments as glandular tissue. All phantom projection view image figures are displayed with the same window and level setting. Note that the skin is not visible in the projection view image because of the window and level setting used.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

A single (central) slice through the phantom (top) and simulated projection of the full phantom (bottom). Parameters chosen were n c  = 300, f c  = 0.20, and f g  = 0.3–0.6. For this phantom, VGF sk  = 0.159. All phantom projection view image figures are displayed with the same window and level setting. Note that the skin is not visible in the projection view image because of the window and level setting used.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

A single (central) slice through the phantom (top) and simulated projection of the full phantom (bottom). Parameters chosen were n c  = 300, f c  = 0.3, and f g  = 0.3–0.6. For this phantom, VGF sk  = 0.235. All phantom projection view image figures are displayed with the same window and level setting. Note that the skin is not visible in the projection view image because of the window and level setting used.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulated projections of six phantoms using the same base phantom (n c  = 300) with different input parameters. The left column has f g  = 0.1–0.3 and the right column has f g  = 0.3–0.6. Rows from top to bottom have f c  = 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30, respectively. Dimensions of each image are identical to those in the projection view images in Figs. 6–8. Values for VGF sk are shown for each phantom. All phantom projection view image figures are displayed with the same window and level setting. Note that the skin is not visible in the projection view image because of the window and level setting used.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Simulated projection images of six different base phantoms with the same input parameters (n c  = 200, f g  = 0.1–0.3, and f c  = 0.20). Dimensions of each image are identical to those in the projection view images in Figs. 6–8. All phantom projection view image figures are displayed with the same window and level setting. Note that the skin is not visible in the projection view image because of the window and level setting used.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

ROIs from simulated projection view images (top) of the statistically defined anthropomorphic phantom with corresponding periodograms (bottom). Pixel size is 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm in the ROI images. Values for β in these ROIs were 2.81 (left) and 2.97 (right).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Radially averaged periodograms for ROIs shown in Fig. 11. β was calculated using data points between 0.15 and 0.7 cycles/mm (shown as circles). (a) β = 2.81 and (b) β = 2.97.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Projection views (left) and corresponding beta map images (right). One base phantom with n c  = 300, with f g  = 0.1–0.3 and three different f c : (a) 0.10, (b) 0.20, and (c) 0.30. Values for VGF sk (left) and beta map average β (right) are shown for each phantom. For each beta map, 1 207 616 ROIs were extracted.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Example projections of phantoms with binarized filtered noise added as a single contiguous volume. These phantoms were generated using the same methods as the compartmentalized version, except the entire breast was treated as a single compartment. Figures are displayed with the same window and level setting as projection view images shown previously.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Typical input parameters for phantoms.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Mean VGF sk data and standard deviation for 20 phantoms generated using each set of input parameters (f c , f g , and n c ). Twenty unique base phantoms were generated for each n c .

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Average β values for 20 phantoms using each set of input parameters (f c , f g , and n c ). Twenty unique base phantoms were generated for each n c .

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/6/10.1118/1.4718576
2012-05-24
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/6/10.1118/1.4718576
10.1118/1.4718576
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