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Displacement and strain estimation for evaluation of arterial wall stiffness using a familial hypercholesterolemia swine model of atherosclerosis
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10.1118/1.4722746
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4722746
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4722746

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the region of the femoral artery that was imaged on the FH swine model of atherosclerosis.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Ultrasound B-mode image (a), the accumulated axial displacement (b), the accumulated lateral displacement (c), the corresponding accumulated axial strain (d), and lateral strain images over a cardiac cycle (e).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Ultrasound B-mode image with the regions of interest on the near wall and the far wall of the femoral artery and (b) representative photomicrograph (5× objective) of a hematoxylin and eosin stained cross section of a femoral artery from an 8-month-old FH swine.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Plots of the accumulated axial displacement (a) and strain (b) and the accumulated lateral displacement (c) and strain (d) shown over two cardiac cycles and computed over a region of interest that is 0.63 mm in thickness or a single row of strain estimates and 1 cm in length. The error bars denote the standard deviation for data points with the 1 mm ROI from the surface of the artery that are tracked over the cardiac cycle for both the near and far wall.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Plots of the accumulated axial displacement (a) and strain (b) and the accumulated lateral displacement (c) and strain (d) shown over two cardiac cycles and computed over a region of interest that is 1 mm in thickness and 1 cm in length. The error bars denote the standard deviation for data points with the 1 mm ROI from the surface of the artery that are tracked over the cardiac cycle for both the near and far walls.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Plots of the accumulated axial strain for an ROI with a thickness of one row (a), along with the corresponding curves for an ROI with a 0.79 mm thickness (b), 1 mm thickness (c), and 1.48 mm thickness (d). The error bars in this figure denote the standard error to clearly indicate the strain variations in the near and far wall.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Plots of the accumulated axial displacement (a) and strain (b) and corresponding lateral displacement (c) and strain (d) versus ROI thickness. Values are plotted at the peak of the cyclic curves shown in Figs. 4–6 or at a time instant of approximately 0.35 s into the cardiac cycle. The error bars in this figure denote the standard error to clearly indicate mean variations in the near and far wall.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Plots of the accumulated axial displacement (a) and strain (b) and corresponding lateral displacement (c) and strain (d) versus ROI thickness. Values are plotted at the valley of the cyclic curves shown in Figs. 4–6 or at a time instant of approximately 0.89 s into the cardiac cycle. The error bars in this figure denote the standard error to clearly indicate mean variations in the near and far wall.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Plots showing the average axial strain of a single row of pixels versus their distance from the far wall (a, b) and the near wall (c, d) at their peaks during the cardiac cycle. The values remain consistent from one cardiac cycle to the next. The error bars in this figure denote the standard error to clearly indicate mean variations in the near and far walls.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Plots showing accumulated axial displacement of the near and far wall (a, b) and the accumulated axial strain of the near and far wall (c, d) for five FH swine. Plots are shown for ROI with 0.6 mm thickness. Normalization was performed by dividing the amplitudes of the near and far wall displacements by the systolic blood pressure. The axes are both unit-less due to the normalizations. The error bars in this figure denote the standard error to clearly indicate mean variations in the near and far walls.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Diagram showing the coordinate grid used for bilinear interpolation. When a data point is located at a noninteger coordinate, the data points located at the four neighboring integer coordinates, found via rounding, are used for the estimation of the value at that location.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate measurements for the five FH swine.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4722746
2012-07-02
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Displacement and strain estimation for evaluation of arterial wall stiffness using a familial hypercholesterolemia swine model of atherosclerosis
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4722746
10.1118/1.4722746
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