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Eye tracking and gating system for proton therapy of orbital tumors
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10.1118/1.4729708
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4729708
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4729708

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Flowchart of concept of eye-tracking and beam-gating system for the treatment of ocular tumors.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Photograph of eye snout and part of eye beam delivery system at Korea National Cancer Center.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Three calibration modes defining actual image (mm/pixel). (a) Point-detection mode for automatic detection of patterns in “+” shape and image definition (mm/pixel). (b) Edge-detection mode for definition of image (mm/pixel) with reference to iris diameter previously measured at outpatient clinic. (c) Line-measurement mode for direct, ruler measurement of image (mm/pixel) with reference to known length of object. (d) Line-measurement mode for use in clinical setting.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Process for establishing ROI of reference image and for capturing image. (b) Calibration and establishment of reference image. This process confirms a reference image and its origin. If the ROI establishment of a reference image or calibration fails, a retrial is possible.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Process of eye tracking and beam gating in calibration modes. (a) Eye position of patient is well maintained. (b) Beam is turned off when eye deviates beyond treatment tolerance value. (c) ROI of reference image can be displayed as rectangular shape.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Dosimetric results of dose distribution. (Solid line) Proton dose distribution when beam gating is not applied to nonmotion phantom. (Dashed line) Proton dose distribution when beam gating is not applied to motion phantom. (Dotted line) Proton dose distribution when beam gating with 0.5-mm treatment tolerance is applied to motion phantom.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Real-time X- and Y-axes total movement data for second treatment of third patient listed in Table IV.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Patient treated with system. In the case of this patient, the ROI of the reference was difficult to establish using the whole iris or pupil; thus, it was established using the margin of the iris corner. (a) Position of eye is maintained within treatment tolerance value. (b) Proton beams are blocked because eye position has deviated beyond treatment tolerance value.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Comparisons of the image (mm/pixel) between the three calibration modes.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Comparisons of accuracy rates of a motion phantom measured by using the three calibration modes.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Accuracy rates of our beam gating system by using films.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

The result of patient data for eye movement during the treatment.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4729708
2012-06-22
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Eye tracking and gating system for proton therapy of orbital tumors
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/7/10.1118/1.4729708
10.1118/1.4729708
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