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Biological effect of dose distortion by fiducial markers in spot-scanning proton therapy with a limited number of fields: A simulation study
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10.1118/1.4745558
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/9/10.1118/1.4745558
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/9/10.1118/1.4745558

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Phantom geometry, coordinate system, and beam directions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of nozzle geometry.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Fluoroscopic images of gold markers in pelvic phantom (100 kV, 80 mAs, 4 ms (AP), 120 kV, 80 mAs, 4 ms (LR)). The arrows show 1.5-mm markers; other dots are 2-mm markers. Two coiled markers with a diameter of 1.5 mm are also shown for comparison.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The marker positions investigated. Rectangles show PTV region and its side length is L = 3.6–4.8 cm. ξ = 1.5 cm, η = 1.0 cm.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

TCP curve for α/β values of 1.5, 3, and 10 Gy (RBE) for homogeneous dose distribution.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Depth dose distribution along the central beam axis for gold markers with a diameter of 2 mm (left) and 1.5 mm (right). Three plots for one lateral field with marker positions (A), (C), and (E) in Fig. 4(a) are shown with the reference (without marker). The dose values at the marker positions (arrows) have no effect on TCP evaluation. In the plots, these values are removed and the endpoints are linearly interpolated. Note that the peak-to-plateau ratio is rather high because the profile is taken along the central axis of the pencil beam as well as the source to axis distance is rather small in our nozzle.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Plane dose distribution for one (a), two opposite (b), and three fields (c) along the central beam axis for gold markers with a diameter of 2 mm placed at the IC. Rectangular regions and black dots show the PTV and gold marker, respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Simulation setup for beam widths verifications in a phantom composed of water and gold plate. (a) 180 MeV and (b) 132 MeV beam enters the water phantom, passes through the gold plate of 2 mm thickness, and stops at 20 and 11 cm depth, respectively.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Radiobiological parameters used in this study.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Summary of minimum dose in CTVave (D min) and the minimum value of R TCP among CTVmin, CTVave, and CTVmax (R V TCP) for each α/β value and for each marker size, position, and number of fields.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/9/10.1118/1.4745558
2012-08-24
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Biological effect of dose distortion by fiducial markers in spot-scanning proton therapy with a limited number of fields: A simulation study
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/39/9/10.1118/1.4745558
10.1118/1.4745558
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