Schematic geometry of a cell used in MCNP simulation. The cell contains 2.01 × 105 AuNPs in the extracellular space (a) and (e), on the cell surface (b) and (f), in the cytoplasm (c) and (g), or in the nucleus (d) and (h), respectively, and is exposed to x-rays. (e)–(h) are 33 times magnification of (a)–(d), respectively, to highlight the arrangement of gold nanospheres (circles in the center of hexagonals).
Schematic model of a single cell (a) and (d) at the center of a 0.24 × 0.24 × 0.24 cm3 cube of tissue, a monolayer of cells in one well of a 24-well plate (b) and (e), and a cluster of cells [(c) and (f); 0.24 × 0.24 × 0.24 cm3 cube)]. (d), (e), and (f) showed the xz slices of (a), (b), and (c), respectively, while (g) illustrates the xy slice of (b) and (c) through the monolayer of cells.
Plots of NDEF (a)–(c), (g)–(i) and CDEF (d)–(f) vs x-ray photon energy for 2.01 × 105 AuNPs (30 nm) per cell deposited in a single cell (a) and (d), a monolayer of cells (b) and (e), or a cluster of cells (c) and (f). (a)–(f) show the effects of AuNP location (in the EC, on the CS, in the Cy, or in the N). (g)–(i) demonstrate the influence of cell model (cluster, monolayer, or single cell). Error bars indicate the standard deviation.
Linear dependence of the NDEF on the number of AuNPs per cell for 40 keV, 90 keV, and 100 kVp x-rays. AuNPs(30 nm) are present in the cytoplasm of a cluster of cells. Error bars represent the standard deviation.
The concentration of AuNPs (mg Au/g tissue) required to double the prescribed x-ray dose to the cell nucleus. a
The concentration of AuNPs (mg Au/g tissue) required to double the prescribed x-ray (40 keV) dose to the cell nucleus. a
The number of 30 nm AuNPs in each cell compartment determined by cell fractionation. a
Comparison of calculated NDEFs and CDEFs with experimentally derived DEFs. a
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