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X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materialsa)
a)Some contents of this work were presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Charlotte, NC, July 2012.
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10.1118/1.4794503
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/4/10.1118/1.4794503
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/4/10.1118/1.4794503

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement δ of breast tissues and substitute materials listed in Table I . For microcalcifications, calcium carbonate and aluminum were found to straddle the refractive index decrements of calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite in the energy range of 5–50 keV.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Linear attenuation coefficient μ that is related to the imaginary part of the refractive index β by , where λ is the wavelength corresponding to energy E is shown.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Three tissue substitute materials exhibited δ and μ values between that of adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue over at least 50% of the energy range considered are shown. With the exception of BR10 over the narrow range or 30–35 keV, the equivalent fibroglandular fraction of δ and μ were substantially different.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

For the five materials that exhibited increased δ(E) over fibroglandular tissue, (a) the percent increase in δ(E), and (b) the percent difference in μ(E) with respect to fibroglandular tissue are shown. The percent difference in μ(E) with respect to fibroglandular tissue is energy-dependent.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Substitute materials for breast tissues are ranked in order of their absolute difference in δ from the target breast tissue over the energy range of 5–50 keV. For each target breast tissue in column 1, the reference source for elemental composition is provided in column 2. For each substitute, the material, reference source for elemental composition or the molecular formula, mean ± standard deviation in % δdiff over the energy range, and the % δdiff range [minimum, maximum] are provided.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Equivalent fibroglandular weight fraction (f g ) in terms of δ for seven tissue substitute materials that exhibited δ(E) between that of adipose and fibroglandular breast tissue over the energy range of 5–50 keV. For each tissue substitute material, the mean, the standard deviation, the minimum, and the maximum of f g over 5–50 keV are provided.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Percent difference in refractive index decrement computed with respect to fibroglandular tissue for materials that exhibited increased δ(E) over fibroglandular tissue in the energy range of 5–50 keV.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

δ-values (×10−6) for breast tissues. For adipose and fibroglandular tissue, the average of δ-values obtained using elemental composition from Refs. 19 and 24 is shown.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/4/10.1118/1.4794503
2013-03-15
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materialsa)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/4/10.1118/1.4794503
10.1118/1.4794503
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