(a) Schematic assembly of a two-sensor TOPOS system: The two sensors are mounted on the ceiling of the treatment room, each consisting of a camera and projector, looking at the treatment couch from opposite sides, to minimize shadowing. (b) Technical layout of a two-sensor system: One PC unit (Server PC) in the treatment room manages the data collection of the two sensors and transmits the raw data to a client PC in the control room for further processing.
(a)–(c) Gray-Code pattern to compensate for the 2π periodicity of the sine patterns. (d)–(f) Sine patterns, each shifted by 120° compared to the previous one.
Rendered 3D surface points from a two-sensor TOPOS system of a mannequin used as phantom. The drawn box covers a volume of 600 × 350 × 310 mm3.
Display of the measured surface of a mannequin (with texture overlay) and a reference surface (transparent green). The arrows on the left hand side indicate the result of the surface registration algorithm. The bigger the arrow, the larger the transformation component for that direction, respectively rotation.
Display of color-coded patient alignment. In (a) the body was moved 5.0 mm to the right and compared to the reference surface, representing the original (painted half-transparent). In (b) the body was moved 5.0 mm to the left.
Setup for testing the TOPOS system as positioning system: two TOPOS sensor heads observing the mannequin lying on a Protura 6 DoF table top, which is used for alignment corrections.
TOPOS position (actual) versus nominal position for the region between glabella and sternal notch of a mannequin (top) and of the region from 2 cm above the sternal notch to the xiphoid process (bottom). On the left, accuracy is shown if only one axes is moved and on the right side all three axes are moved at the same time.
TOPOS position (actual) versus nominal position for the region between glabella and sternal notch of a volunteer. All three axes are moved at the same time.
Setup used for testing the TOPOS system as gating system: one of the two sensor heads in the upper right corner observes the male mannequin lying on the M840 hexapod, which simulates the breathing motion.
Simulation of a patient breathing pattern with the PI hexapod M840 robot (red curve). The mannequin was placed on top of the hexapod and the breathing amplitude was recorded with the TOPOS system on the breast of the mannequin (blue curve).
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