When an intensity-modulated radiation beam is delivered to a moving target, the interplay effect between dynamic beam delivery and the target motion due to miss-synchronization can cause unpredictable dose delivery. The portal dose image in electronic portal imaging device (EPID) represents radiation attenuated and scattered through target media. Thus, it may possess information about delivered radiation to the target. Using a continuous scan (cine) mode of EPID, which provides temporal dose images related to target and beam movements, the authors’ goal is to perform four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction.
To evaluate this hypothesis, first, the authors have derived and subsequently validated a fast method of dose reconstruction based on virtual beamlet calculations of dose responses using a test intensity-modulated beam. This method was necessary for processing a large number of EPID images pertinent for four-dimensional reconstruction. Second, cine mode acquisition after summation over all images was validated through comparison with integration mode acquisition on EPID (IAS3 and aS1000) for the test beam. This was to confirm the agreement of the cine mode with the integrated mode, specifically for the test beam, which is an accepted mode of image acquisition for dosimetry with EPID. Third, in-phantom film and exit EPID dosimetry was performed on a moving platform using the same beam. Heterogeneous as well as homogeneous phantoms were used. The cine images were temporally sorted at 10% interval. The authors have performed dose reconstruction to the in-phantom plane from the sorted cine images using the above validated method of dose reconstruction. The reconstructed dose from each cine image was summed to compose a total reconstructed dose from the test beam delivery, and was compared with film measurements.
The new method of dose reconstruction was validated showing greater than 95.3% pass rates of the gamma test with the criteria of dose difference of 3% and distance to agreement of 3 mm. The dose comparison of the reconstructed dose with the measured dose for the two phantoms showed pass rates higher than 96.4% given the same criteria.
Feasibility of 4D dose reconstruction was successfully demonstrated in this study. The 4D dose reconstruction demonstrated in this study can be a promising dose validation method for radiation delivery on moving organs.
Jong Oh Kim expresses gratitude to Dr. Fippel for providing him with the XVMC code. This study was in part supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
II.A. Dosereconstruction method based on responses to virtual beamlets
II.B. Phantom imaging
II.C. Reconstruction method validation
II.C.1. Test beam
II.D. 4D dosereconstruction
II.D.1. Validation of EPID cine imaging
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
III.A. Reconstruction method validation
III.B. 4D dosereconstruction
III.B.1. Validation of EPID cine imaging
- Medical imaging
- Image guided radiation therapy
- Medical image reconstruction
- Image reconstruction
Data & Media loading...
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...