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On the (f)utility of measuring the lead equivalence of protective garments
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10.1118/1.4805098
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/6/10.1118/1.4805098
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/6/10.1118/1.4805098

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Experimental setup for measurement of attenuation of scattered radiation. “X” marks the location of the x-ray tube focal spot. The circular object in the enclosure is the 180 cm ionization chamber, the oblong object is the 1800 cm ionization chamber. Distances: A = 70, B = 47, C = 40 cm. “C” represents the distance from the phantom to the lead or garment being tested.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Experimental setup for measurement of attenuation of primary radiation. “X” marks the location of the x-ray tube focal spot. The small oblong object at location B is the 6 cm ionization chamber. Distances: A = 103, B = 67 cm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Penetration of scattered radiation from 60 kVp beam through lead sheets (solid circles: ●), Garment A (solid square: ■), Garment B (solid diamond: ♦), and Garment C (solid triangle: ▲). The polynomial least-squares fit was anchored at (0,0) and the fit was used to calculate lead-equivalent thicknesses of tested garments. The drop lines mark the lead equivalence of the Garments A, B, and C. (b) Penetration of primary and scattered radiation from 80 kVp beam through lead sheets (primary, open circles: ○ and scattered, solid circles: ●), Garment A (primary, open square: □ and scattered, solid square: ■), Garment B (primary, open diamond: ◊ and scattered, solid diamond: ♦), and Garment C (primary, open triangle: △ and scattered, solid triangle: ▲). The polynomial least-squares fit was anchored at (0,0) and the fit was used to calculate lead-equivalent thicknesses of tested garments. The drop lines mark the lead equivalence of the Garments A, B, and C for primary (dashed) and scattered (solid) radiation. (c) Penetration of primary and scattered radiation from 100 kVp beam through lead sheets (primary, open circles: ○ and scattered, solid circles: ●), Garment A (primary, open square: □ and scattered, solid square: ■), Garment B (primary, open diamond: ◊ and scattered, solid diamond: ♦), and Garment C (primary, open triangle: △ and scattered, solid triangle: ▲). The polynomial least-squares fit was anchored at (0,0) and the fit was used to calculate lead-equivalent thicknesses of tested garments. The drop lines mark the lead equivalence of the Garments A, B, and C for primary (dashed) and scattered (solid) radiation. Note that the drop lines for Garments B and C (primary) lie on top of one another. (d) Penetration of primary and scattered radiation from 120 kVp beam through lead sheets (primary, open circles: ○ and scattered, solid circles: ●), Garment A (primary, open square: □ and scattered, solid square: ■), Garment B (primary, open diamond: ◊ and scattered, solid diamond: ♦), and Garment C (primary, open triangle: △ and scattered, solid triangle: ▲). The polynomial least-squares fit was anchored at (0,0) and the fit was used to calculate lead-equivalent thicknesses of tested garments. The drop lines mark the lead equivalence of the Garments A, B, and C for primary (dashed) and scattered (solid) radiation.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Penetration of primary radiation through lead for various thicknesses of lead as a function of first half-value layer, (b) Penetration of scattered radiation through lead for various thicknesses of lead as a function of first half-value layer. The data points for these lines are derived from the polynomial least-squares fits to the data of Figs. 3(a)–3(d) . Linear fit parameters are listed in Table VI .

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Beam qualities used in this experiment.

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TABLE II.

Properties of lead sheets used for attenuation measurements.

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TABLE III.

Results of polynomial least-squares fits of the logarithm of normalized penetration versus lead thickness. Results listed as “fit parameter (standard error).”

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TABLE IV.

Penetration through protective garments and lead sheets as a percentage of initial intensity.

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TABLE V.

Lead equivalence of protective garments in millimeters lead.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Results of linear least-squares fits of percent penetration versus half-value layer in Fig. 4 .

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/6/10.1118/1.4805098
2013-05-22
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: On the (f)utility of measuring the lead equivalence of protective garments
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/6/10.1118/1.4805098
10.1118/1.4805098
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