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Modifying the size distribution of microbubble contrast agents for high-frequency subharmonic imaging
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10.1118/1.4813017
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/8/10.1118/1.4813017
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/8/10.1118/1.4813017

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The experimental setup used for radio-frequency measurements conducted to characterize the subharmonic response of the agent sizes.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) The number-weighted, and (b) volume-weighted size distribution of native Targestar-P, measured with a Casy™ counter. The legend shows the median diameter of the agent.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The spectral response of (a) the 20 MHz transmitting transducer, and (b) the 10 MHz receiving transducer, that was measured with a calibrated broadband hydrophone.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The (a) “baseline” spectral response obtained without contrast agent in the plexiglass chamber, and (b) the spectral response of native Targestar-P computed for a pressure amplitude of 398 kPa. The subharmonic response of native agent was over 20 dB higher than the baseline spectral power at 10 MHz.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The estimated (a) number-weighted, and (b) volume-weighted size distribution of size-manipulated agent samples. The size distributions were normalized to the maximum in each case for comparison.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The spectral response of the size-manipulated agent populations with median diameters (a) 1.35, (b) 1.44, (c) 1.63, (d) 1.89, (e) 2.15, and (f) 2.99 μm, computed at 398 kPa. The noise floor in each case is denoted with the dotted curve.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The subharmonic response of the agent relative to the baseline signal at 10 MHz, computed for different agent sizes when the peak negative pressure was increased progressively from 190 to 398 kPa.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The peak subharmonic response relative to baseline plotted against the median diameter of (a) number-weighted and (b) volume-weighted agent population. The linear regression was computed for the range of sizes over which the subharmonic response demonstrated a monotonic increase (1.35–2.15 μm).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Size distribution estimates of agents size distributions created from Targestar-P.

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/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/8/10.1118/1.4813017
2013-07-17
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Modifying the size distribution of microbubble contrast agents for high-frequency subharmonic imaging
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/40/8/10.1118/1.4813017
10.1118/1.4813017
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