The moving cardiac phantom, comprising (a) a computer controlled motion unit, (b) a water container, (c) a thoracic phantom, (d) a lever, and (e) an artificial coronary artery.
Position of the artificial coronary artery as a function of time, for velocities of 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 mm/s. The image acquisition windows of CT-A and CT-B in ECG-triggered acquisition mode are indicated, starting at 370 ms and with a width of 330 and 267 ms, respectively.
Artificial arteries with calcified lesions of high [800 Hounsfield units (HU)], medium (400 HU), and low density (200 HU) in large, medium, and small size. (a) Schematic drawing of an artificial artery, the black shadows indicated the artificial calcified lesions in the artificial artery, the length, radius, and rotation angles of the artificial calcified lesions are also indicated; (b) photograph of three artificial arteries.
CT images of the artificial high-density calcifications in (a) the nontriggered thoracic examination (large, medium, and small size of the lesion from top to bottom, and velocity of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 mm/s from left to right), and (b) ECG-triggered cardiac examination (large, medium, and small size from top to bottom, and 0, 10, and 30 mm/s from left to right). Window center: 75 HU, window width: 350 HU.
Cardiac motion susceptibility (CMS) index of eight measurable artificial calcified lesions in nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT examinations.
Comparison of calcium scores between nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT examinations in eight measurable calcified lesions. The CT density thresholds were from 90 to 160 HU in nontriggered CT. The threshold was 130 HU in ECG-triggered CT as reference. A significant difference was indicated by “*.”
Grouped plots of the calcium scores of the eight measurable artificial calcified lesions in the nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT examinations. The dotted boxes indicate 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the calcium scores in ECG-triggered CT examinations.
Physical property of artificial calcified lesions of high, medium, and low density in large, medium, and small size.
CT acquisition protocol and image reconstruction parameters.
Sensitivity to detect coronary calcifications in non-triggered and ECG-triggered CT with a CT density threshold of 130 Hounsfield units.
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