Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.R. Nath, L. L. Anderson, J. A. Meli, A. J. Olch, J. A. Stitt, and J. F. Williamson, “Code of practice for brachytherapy physics: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 56,” Med. Phys. 24, 15571598 (1997).
2.U. K. Henschke, “Afterloading applicator for radiation therapy of carcinoma of the uterus,” Radiology 74 , 834 (1960).
3.U. K. Henschke, B. S. Hilaris, and D. G. Mahan, “Remote afterloading with intracavitary applicators,” Radiology 83, 344345 (1964).
4.P. P. Kumar, U. K. Henschke, and D. G. Mahan, “Remote afterloading for intracavitary radiation therapy,” Prog. Clin. Cancer 10, 127136 (1965).
5.W. Lin et al., “Electromagnetic navigation improves minimally invasive robot-assisted lung brachytherapy,” Comput. Aided Surg. 13, 114123 (2008).
6.S. Mohan et al., “Computer integrated system for minimally invasive lung brachytherapy,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 132, 296301 (2008).
7.J. Ricke et al., “CT-guided brachytherapy. A novel percutaneous technique for interstitial ablation of liver metastases,” Strahlenther. Onkol. 180, 274280 (2004).
8.L. Maier-Hein et al., “Human vs robot operator error in a needle-based navigation system for percutaneous liver interventions,” Proc. SPIE 7261 , 72610Y (2009).
9.K. S. Fu, R. C. Gonzalez, and C. S. G. Lee, Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision, and Intelligence (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1987).
10.T. B. Sheridan, Telerobotics, Automation, and Human Supervisory Control (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1992).
11.S. D. Chang and J. R. Adler, “Robotics and radiosurgery—The CyberKnife,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 76, 204208 (2001).
12.M. Quinn, “CyberKnife: A robotic radiosurgery system,” Clin. J. Oncol. Nurs. 6, 149 (2002).
13.S. R. Dev and S. Dev, “Robotics: History, present status and future trends,” in Robotics Technology and Flexible Automations (Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2010), ISBN (13): 978-0-07-007791-1.
14.Y. Yu et al., “Robotic system for prostate brachytherapy,” Comput. Aided Surg. 12, 366370 (2007).
15.M. P. van Gellekom, M. A. Moerland, H. K. Wijrdeman, and J. J. Battermann, “Quality of permanent prostate implants using automated delivery with seedSelectron versus manual insertion of RAPID strands,” Radiother. Oncol. 73, 4956 (2004).
16.M. R. van den Bosch et al., “Feasibility of adequate dose coverage in permanent prostate brachytherapy using divergent needle insertion methods,” Radiother. Oncol. 86, 120125 (2008).
17.T. K. Podder et al., “In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 33, 29152922 (2006).
18.T. K. Podder et al., “Surgical needle intervention in soft tissue: In-vivo force measurement,” in Proceedings of the International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS/EMBC), New York, NY (IEEE, New York, NY, 2006), pp. 36523655.
19.T. K. Podder et al., “Mechanical properties of human prostate tissue in the context of surgical needle insertion,” Int. J. Comput. Assist. Radiol. Surg. 2, S106S108 (2007).
20.J. Shigley, C. Mischke, and R. Budynas, Mechanical Engineering Design, 7th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2003).
21.J. Shigley, C. Mischke, and R. Budynas, Standard Handbook of Machine Design, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2004).
22.T. K. Podder et al., “Effects of velocity modulation during surgical needle insertion,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, New York, NY, 2005) Vol. 6, pp. 57665770.
23.G. Wan et al., “Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction,” Med. Phys. 32, 902909 (2005).
24.M. A. Meltsner et al., “Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(19), 60276037 (2007).
25.D. S. Stember and J. P. Mulhall, “The concept of erectile function preservation (penile rehabilitation) in the patient after brachytherapy for prostate cancer,” Brachytherapy 11, 8796 (2012).
26.N. Fleminga et al., “Ultrasound elastography - enabling technology for image guided laparoscopic prostatectomy,” Proc. SPIE 7261 , 72612I (2009).
27.L. L. Yeung and L. M. Su, “Technologies for imaging the neurovascular bundle during prostatectomy,” in New Techniques in Urology, edited by P. Dasgupta, J. M. Fitzpatrick, R. Kirby, and I. S. Gill (Springer-Verlag, London, 2010).
28.J. A. M. Cunha et al., “Robot-guided delivery of brachytherapy needles along non-parallel paths to avoid penile bulb puncture,” Brachytherapy 11, 348353 (2012).
29.Y. D. Zhang et al., “Design and experiments of seed delivery device for prostate brachytherapy,” in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Beijing, China (IEEE, New York, NY, 2006), pp. 12801284.
30.T. K. Podder, I. Buzurovic, K. Huang, T. Showalter, A. P. Dicker, and Y. Yu, “Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: An autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Phys. 38, 96106 (2010).
31. IEC 60601-1:2005, Medical Electrical Equipment—Part 1: General Requirements for Basic Safety and Essential Performance (International Electrotechnical Commission, Brussels, 2005).
32.R. Nath et al., “Recommendations by the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO on the use of new or innovative brachytherapy sources, devices, applicators, or applications: Report of Task Group 167” (unpublished).
33.H. F. Hope-Stone, S. C. Klevenhagen, B. S. Mantell, W. Y. Morgan, and S. A. Scholnick, “Use of the curietron at The London Hospital,” Clin. Radiol. 32, 1723 (1981).
34.P. R. Almond, “Remote afterloading,” in AAPM Monograph No. 9, Advances in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning, edited by A. E. Wright and A. L. Boyer (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, 1983), pp. 601619.
35.G. P. Glasgow, J. D. Bourland, P. W. Grigsby, J. A. Meli, and K. A. Weaver, AAPM Task Group No. 41: A Report on Remote Afterloading Technology (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, 1993).
36.M. Bidmead et al., “A practical guide to quality control of brachytherapy equipment,” in ESTRO Booklet No. 8, edited by J. Venselaar and P. Calatayud (ESTRO, 1200 Brussels, Belgium, 2004).
37.D. M. Elliott et al., “Automated implantation system for radioisotope seeds,” U.S. patent 6869390 B2 (22 March 2005).
38.G. Fichtinger et al., “System for robotically assisted prostate biopsy and therapy with intraoperative CT guidance,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 6074 (2002).
39.G. Fichtinger et al., “Robotic assistance for ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 10, 119127 (2007).
40.D. Y. Song et al., “Robotic needle guide for prostate brachytherapy: Clinical testing of feasibility and performance,” Brachytherapy 10, 5763 (2011).
41.Z. Wei et al., “Robot-assisted 3D-TRUS guided prostate brachytherapy: System integration and validation,” Med. Phys. 31, 539548 (2004).
42.N. Bluvol et al., “A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound,” Med. Phys. 35, 617628 (2008).
43.B. L. Davies et al., “Brachytherapy—An example of a urological minimally invasive robotic procedure,” Int. J. Med. Robot. Comput. Assist. Surg. 1, 8896 (2004).
44.M. Meltsner, N. Ferrier, and B. Thomadsen, “Design and quantitative analysis of a novel brachytherapy robot,” Med. Phys. 32 , 1949 (2005).
45.M. A. Meltsner, “Design and optimization of a brachytherapy robot,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2007.
46.Y. Yu et al., “Robot-assisted prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 9, 4149 (2006).
47.H. Bassan, R. V. Patel, and M. Moallem, “A novel manipulator for prostate brachytherapy: Design and preliminary results,” in Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Heidelberg, Germany (Elsevier, Frankfurt, D60486, 2006), pp. 3035.
48.H. Bassan, T. Hayes, R. V. Patel, and M. Moallem, “A novel manipulator for 3D ultrasound guided percutaneous needle insertion,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Roma, Italy (IEEE, New York, 2007), pp. 617622.
49.S. E. Salcudean et al., “A robotic needle guide for prostate brachytherapy,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 29752981.
50.T. K. Podder, I. Buzurovic, and Y. Yu, “Multichannel robot for image-guided brachytherapy,” in IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (BIBE), Philadelphia, PA (IEEE, New York, 2010), pp. 209213.
51.T. Podder, I. Buzurovic, K. Huang, and Y. Yu, “Multichannel robotic system for surgical procedures,” in IASTED Symposium, Washington, DC, 2011.
52.S. Schreiner et al., “A system for percutaneous delivery of treatment with a fluoroscopically-guided robot,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 747756 (1997).
53.K. Masamune et al., “System for robotically assisted percutaneous procedures with computed tomography guidance,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6, 370383 (2001).
54.J. Yanof, C. Bauer, and B. Wood, “Tactile feedback and display system for CT-guided, robot-assisted percutaneous procedures,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Congress and Exhibition, Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, International Congress Series (Elsevier, New York, NY, 2004), Vol. 1268, pp. 521526.
55.M. Muntener et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging compatible robotic system for fully automated brachytherapy seed placement,” Urology 68, 13131317 (2006).
56.A. Patriciu et al., “Automatic brachytherapy seed placement under MRI guidance,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54, 14991506 (2007).
57.M. R. van den Bosch et al., “MRI-guided robotic system for transperineal prostate interventions: Proof of principle,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55, N133N140 (2010).
58.R. Alterovitz, J. Pouliot, R. Taschereau, I.-C. Hsu, and K. Goldberg, “Simulating needle insertion and radioactive seed implantation for prostate brachytherapy,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, edited by J. D. Westwood et al. (IOS, 1013 BG Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2003), Vol. 11, pp. 1925.
59.S. P. DiMaio and S. E. Salcudean, “Needle insertion modeling and simulation,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 19, 864875 (2003).
60.N. Chentanez et al., “Interactive simulation of surgical needle insertion and steering,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series (ACM/ACM, New York, NY 10121, 2009).
61.O. Goksel, S. E. Salcudean, and S. P. Dimaio, “3D simulation of needle-tissue interaction with application to prostate brachytherapy,” Comput. Aided Surg. 11, 279288 (2006).
62.E. Dehghan, X. Wen, R. Zahiri-Azar, M. Marchal, and S. E. Salcudean, “Needle-tissue interaction modeling using ultrasound-based motion estimation: Phantom study,” Comput. Aided Surg. 13, 265280 (2008).
63.K. Yan, T. Podder, Y. Yu, T.-I. Liu, C. W. S. Cheng, and W. S. Ng, “Flexible needle–tissue interaction modeling with depth-varying mean parameter: Preliminary study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56, 255262 (2009).
64.D. Glozman and M. Shoham, “Flexible needle steering and optimal trajectory for percutaneous therapies,” in MICCAI 2004, LNCS Vol. 3217 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).
65.R. J. Webster, N. J. Cowan, G. Chirkjian, and A. M. Okamura, “Nonholonomic modelling of needle steering,” in Experimental Robotics IX , STAR Vol. 21 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006), pp. 35–44.
66.M. Mahvash and P. E. Dupont, “Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 934943 (2010).
67.S. Misra, K. B. Reed, B. W. Schafer, K. T. Ramesh, and A. M. Okamura, “Mechanics of flexible needles robotically steered through soft tissue,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 29, 16401660 (2010).
68.V. Duindam, J. Xu, R. Alterovitz, S. Sastry, and K. Goldberg, “Three-dimensional motion planning algorithms for steerable needles using inverse kinematics,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 29, 789800 (2010).
69.B. Ruiz, P. Hutapea, K. Darvish, A. Dicker, Y. Yu, and T. Podder, “SMA actuated flexible needle control using EM sensor feedback for prostate brachytherapy,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotic and Automation (ICRA) 2012 Needle Steering Workshop, St. Paul, Minnesota, May 18, 2012.
70.T. K. Podder, A. P. Dicker, Y. Yu, K. Darvish, and P. Hutapea, “A novel curvilinear approach for prostate seed implant,” Med. Phys. 39, 18871892 (2012).
71.M. J. Rivard et al., “A technical evaluation of the Nucletron FIRST system: Conformance of a remote afterloading brachytherapy seed implantation system to manufacturer specifications and AAPM Task Group report recommendations,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 6, 2250 (2005).
72.L. Beaulieu et al., “Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 67, 7177 (2007).
73.M. A. Moerland, M. J. H. van Deursen, S. G. Elias, M. van Vulpen, I. M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz, and J. J. Battermann, “Decline of dose coverage between intraoperative planning and post implant dosimetry for I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy: Comparison between loose and stranded seed implants,” Radiother. Oncol. 91, 202206 (2009).
74.T. Podder et al., “Methods for prostate stabilization during transperineal LDR brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 15631579 (2008).
75.E. M. Messing et al., “Intraoperative optimized inverse planning for prostate brachytherapy: Early experience,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 44, 801808 (1999).
76.Y. Yu et al., “Automated treatment planning engine for prostate seed implant brachytherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 43, 647652 (1999).
77.T. K. Podder, W. S. Ng, and Y. Yu, “Multi-channel robotic system for prostate brachytherapy,” in International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Lyon, France (IEEE, New York, NY, 2007), pp. 12331236.
78.V. Lagerburg et al., “Development of a tapping device: A new needle insertion method for prostate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 891902 (2006).
79.V. Lagerburg et al., “A new robotic needle insertion method to minimise attendant prostate motion,” Radiother. Oncol. 80, 7377 (2006).
80.V. Lagerburg et al., “Simulation of the artifact of an iodine seed placed at the needle tip in MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, N59N67 (2008).
81.M. R. van den Bosch et al., “New method to monitor RF safety in MRI-guided interventions based on RF induced image artifacts,” Med. Phys. 37, 814821 (2010).
82.M. Meltsner, N. Ferrier, and B. Thomadsen, “Performance evaluation and optimization of a novel brachytherapy robot,” Med. Phys. 33 , 2264 (2006).
83.M. Meltsner, N. Ferrier, and B. Thomadsen, “Real-time three-dimensional position and orientation data of a brachytherapy robot using magnetic tracking,” Med. Phys. 34 , 2507 (2007).
84.G. Fichtinger et al., “Robotic assistance for ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Image Anal. 12, 535545 (2008).
85.D. Stoianovici, “Multi-imager compatible actuation principles in surgical robotics,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 1, 86100 (2005).
86.D. Stoianovici et al., “MRI Stealth robot for prostate interventions,” Minim. Invasiv. Ther. Allied. Technol. 16, 241248 (2007).
87.M. A. Muntener et al., “Transperineal prostate intervention: Robot for fully automated MR imaging–system description and proof of principle in a canine model,” Radiology 247, 543549 (2008).
88.J. A. Cunha et al., “Toward adaptive stereotactic robotic brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Demonstration of an adaptive workflow incorporating inverse planning and an MR stealth robot,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol. 19, 189202 (2010).
89.A. Krieger et al., “Design of a novel MRI compatible manipulator for image guided prostate interventions,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52, 306313 (2005).
90.A. Krieger et al., “An MRI-compatible robotic system with hybrid tracking for MRI-guided prostate intervention,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58, 30493060 (2011).
91.G. S. Fischer et al., “MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques—A comparative study,” Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 11(Pt. 2), 509517 (2008).
92.G. S. Fischer et al., “MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for transperineal prostate needle placement,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 13(3), 295305 (2008).
93.J. Tokuda et al., “Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions,” Int. J. Comput. Assist. Radiol. Surg. 7(6), 949957 (2012).
94.Z. Wei et al., “3D TRUS guided robot assisted prostate brachytherapy,” Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 8, 1724 (2005).
95.N. Hungr et al., “Design of an ultrasound-guided robotic brachytherapy needle-insertion system,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, New York, NY, 2009), pp. 250253.
96.A. L. Trejos, R. V. Patel, and R. A. Malthaner, “A device for robot assisted minimally invasive lung brachytherapy,” in Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Orlando, FL, May 15–19 (IEEE, New York, 2006), pp. 14871492.
97.A. L. Trejos et al., “Robot-assisted minimally invasive lung brachytherapy,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 3, 4151 (2007).
98.A. L. Trejos, S. Mohan, H. Bassan, A. W. Lin, M. Pytel, A. Kashigar, R. V. Patel, and R. A. Malthaner, “An experimental test-bed for robotics-assisted image-guided minimally invasive lung brachytherapy,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Diego, CA, October 29–November 2, 2007.
99.A. L. Trejos et al., “MIRA V: An integrated system for minimally invasive robot-assisted lung brachytherapy,” in 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Pasadena , May 19–23, 2008.
100.R. Nath et al., “AAPM recommendations on dose prescription and reporting methods for permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer—Report of Task Group 137,” Med. Phys. 36, 53105322 (2009).
101.D. Ash, A. Flynn, J. Battermann, T. de Reijke, P. Lavagnini, and L. Blank, “ESTRA/EAU Urological Brachytherapy Group; EORTC Radiotherapy Group, ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on permanent seed implantation for localized prostate cancer,” Radiother. Oncol. 57, 315321 (2000).
102.A. Salembier, P. Lavagnini, P. Nickers, P. Mangili, A. Rijnders, A. Polo, J. Venselaar, P. Hoskin, and GEC ESTRO PROBATE Group, “Tumour and target volumes in permanent prostate brachytherapy: A supplement to the ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on prostate brachytherapy,” Radiother. Oncol. 83, 310 (2007).
103.B. J. Davis, E. M. Horwitz, J. M. Crook, R. G. Stock, G. S. Merrick, W. M. Butler, P. D. Grimm, N. N. Stone, L. Potters, A. L. Zietman, and M. J. Zelefsky, “American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy,” Brachytherapy 11, 69 (2012).
104.M. F. Dempsey, B. Condon, and D. M. Hadley, “MRI safety review,” Semin. Ultrasound CT, MR 23, 392401 (2002).
105.A. Condon, D. M. Hadley, and R. Hodgson, “The ferromagnetic pillow: A potential MR hazard not detectable by a hand-held magnet,” Br. J. Radiol. 74, 847851 (2001).
106.A. Zimmer, M. N. Janssen, T. A. Treschan, and J. Peters, “Near-miss accident during magnetic resonance imaging by a flying sevoflurane vaporizer due to ferromagnetism undetectable by handheld magnet,” Anesthesiology 100, 13291330 (2004).
107.J. F. Schenck, “Safety of strong, static magnetic fields,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 12, 219 (2000).<2::AID-JMRI2>3.0.CO;2-V
108.S. M. Park, R. Kamondetdacha, and J. A. Nyenhuis, “Calculation of MRI-induced heating of an implanted medical lead wire with an electric field transfer function,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 26, 12781285 (2007).
109.J. Yeung, R. C. Susil, and E. Atalar, “RF heating due to conductive wires during MRI depends on the phase distribution of the transmit field,” Magn. Reson. Med. 48, 10961098 (2002).
110.J. Pictet, R. Meuli, S. Wicky, and J. J. van der Klink, “Radiofrequency heating effects around resonant lengths of wire in MRI,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 29732985 (2002).
111.J. Yeung, P. Karmarkar, and E. R. McVeigh, “Minimizing RF heating of conducting wires in MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 58, 10281034 (2007).
112.M. K. Konings, L. W. Bartels, H. F. M. Smits, and C. J. G. Bakker, “Heating around intravascular guidewires by resonating RF waves,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 12, 7985 (2000).<79::AID-JMRI9>3.0.CO;2-T
113.M. F. Dempsey, B. Condon, and D. M. Hadley, “Investigation of the factors responsible for burns during MRI,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 13, 627631 (2001).
114.M. R. van den Bosch, M. A. Moerland, J. J. Lagendijk, L. W. Bartels, and C. A. van den Berg, “New method to monitor RF safety in MRI-guided interventions based on RF induced image artifacts,” Med. Phys. 37, 814821 (2010).
115.M. S. Huq et al., “Application of risk-analysis methods to radiation-therapy quality management: Report of the AAPM Task Group 100” (unpublished).
116.L. Fu, H. Liu, R. Brasacchio, D. Rubens, J. Strang, E. Messing, and Y. Yu, “Clinical observation and modeling of postimplant seed displacement for prostate brachytherapy,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 63, S504S505 (2005).
117.R. Taschereau, J. Pouliot, J. Roy, and D. Tremblay, “Seed misplacement and stabilizing needles in transperineal permanent prostate implants,” Radiother. Oncol. 55, 5963 (2000).
118.T. Podder, L. Beaulieu, B. Caldwell, R. Cormack, J. Crass, A. Dicker, A. Fenster, G. Fichtinger, M. Meltsner, M. Moerland, R. Nath, M. Rivard, T. Salcudean, D. Song, B. Thomadsen, and Y. Yu, “Validation of the AAPM/ESTRO TG-192 protocol for robotic implantation of brachytherapy seeds: Spatial positioning assessment,” Med. Phys. 39 , 3933 (2012).
119.D. Pfeiffer, S. Sutlief, W. Feng, H. M. Pierce, and J. Kofler, “AAPM Task Group 128: Quality assurance tests for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems,” Med. Phys. 35, 54715489 (2008).
120.S. Diamantopoulos et al., “Effect of using different U/S probe Standoff materials in image geometry for interventional procedures: The example of prostate,” J. Contemp. Brachytherapy 3, 209219 (2011).
121.T. Willoughby, J. Lehmann, J. A. Bencomo, S. K. Jani, L. Santanam, A. Sethi, T. D. Solberg, W. A. Tome, and T. J. Watson, “Quality assurance for nonradiographic radiotherapy localization and positioning systems: Report of Task Group 147,” Med. Phys. 39, 17281747 (2012).
122.N. Hungr et al., “A realistic deformable prostate phantom for multimodal imaging and needle-insertion procedures,” Med. Phys. 39, 20312041 (2012).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests should mimic the real operating procedure as closely as possible. Additional recommendations on robotic brachytherapy systems include display of the operational state; capability of manual override; documented policies for independent check and data verification; intuitive interface displaying the implantation plan and visualization of needle positions and seed locations relative to the target anatomy; needle insertion in a sequential order; robot–clinician and robot–patient interactions robustness, reliability, and safety while delivering the correct dose at the correct site for the correct patient; avoidance of excessive force on radioactive sources; delivery confirmation of the required number or position of seeds; incorporation of a collision avoidance system; system cleaning, decontamination, and sterilization procedures. These recommendations are applicable to end users and manufacturers of robotic brachytherapy systems.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd