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Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom
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10.1118/1.4863510
    + View Affiliations - Hide Affiliations
    Affiliations:
    1 Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019
    2 Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180
    3 Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233
    4 Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019
    a) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: liu@ou.edu; Telephone: (405) 325-4286; Fax: (405) 325-7066.
    Med. Phys. 41, 031902 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4863510
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/41/3/10.1118/1.4863510
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/41/3/10.1118/1.4863510
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for measuring the penetrability of fluorescence x-rays from GNPs, including a polychromatic x-ray source, a pencil beam collimator, a 1 mm thick lead excitation filter (not used in this setup considering the emitted x-ray count rate), saline gold solutions (1.0%/0.5%/0.2% by weight), a compact integrated spectrometer system, and specifically, two spaces reserved to insert a combination of BR12 (1) for inserting BR12 on the excitation path; (2) for inserting BR12 on the emission path.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic diagram of the geometrical setup in a standard Craniocaudal (CC) view; the distances from the focal spot of the x-ray source and the sensitive element of the spectrometer to point of interest are determined based on engineering consideration, which are set to 147 mm and 107 mm, respectively in this study.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) spectrum with no BR12 blocks on either path; spectra with BR12 blocks on the excitation (70 mm)/emission (50 mm) path when using (b) 1.0%, (c) 0.5%, and (d) 0.2% gold solution.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic diagram of the cuboid BR12 phantom with four cylindrical regions for 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% gold solutions and water: (a) plane view; (b) 3D view (unit: mm).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for quantitatively mapping the designed phantom.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic diagram of the XFM scanning process with moving steps of 5 mm in X, Y, and Z directions: (a) Example of scanning at position (12.5, 22.5, and 17.5); (b) Four planes in the scanning in Z direction.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Schematic diagram of the attenuation analysis of both the incident primary x-ray beam and isolated gold fluorescence counts.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Comparison of linear attenuation coefficients between water and BR12, with amplification of the energy range from 60 to 100 keV, where the data of the linear attenuation coefficients for BR12 and water are acquired from the specifications of BR12 and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), respectively (Refs. 19,20 ).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The excitation spectrum of the incident x-ray beam used in this study; the energy from the K-edge of gold to 110 keV capable of exciting of the GNPs to produce is highlighted.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Six typical spectra obtained at representative positions within the phantom; two obvious peaks can be observed when gold solution is excited while its fluorescence x-rays is detected by the spectrometer: (a) 0.2% gold solution; (b) 0.5% gold solution; (c) 1.0% gold solution; while there is no fluorescence x-rays from GNPs can be detected: (d) 0.5% and 1.0% gold solution on the excitation path but no solution on the emission (receiving) path; (e) no gold solution on both the excitation and emission (receiving) paths; and (f) no gold solution on the excitation path but 1.0% and 0.2% gold solution on the emission (receiving) path.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Comparison of spectra when the excitation and emission paths are blocked by (a) water or (b) solution; (c) spectra comparison with relative average deviation (65 –70 keV) as low as 2.55% while Pearson correlation coefficients 0.999 (0–110 keV), 0.998 (40–85 keV), and 0.985 (65–70 keV).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) Diagram for background subtraction; background subtraction result for (b) 1.0% gold solution; (c) 0.5% gold solution; and (d) 0.2% gold solution.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Calibration map for each imaging plane within the BR12 phantom.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Reconstructed mapping results for four planes from top to bottom of the phantom with distance interval of 5 mm: (a) = 17.5 mm; (b) = 12.5 mm; (c) = 7.5 mm; and (d) = 2.5 mm.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Linear relationship between the average fluorescence counts and the concentrations of gold solutions.

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2014-02-14
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/41/3/10.1118/1.4863510
10.1118/1.4863510
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