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A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A NURBS defined skullcap from a template skull (middle) is merged onto the polygon model of a segmented skull (left) to create a solid skull surface defined as a polygon model (right).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Calculating the MC-LDDMM transform. A fully complete adult XCAT phantom is the template; the incomplete pediatric phantom is the target. The template is set to contain the same structures and intensities as the target so the images have a 1:1 correspondence. Given the template and target, the MC-LDDMM calculates the high level transform to map the whole-body template (XCAT) to the target (patient framework).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Once the transform was determined, it was applied to the NURBS surfaces defining the template XCAT to create the patient-specific XCAT phantom containing all anatomical structures.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The pediatric reference set. Shown here are female newborn, male 1 year, female 5 years, male 10 years, female 15 years, and male 15 years.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The different layers of the completed 5-year-old female phantom. From left to right: skin surface; muscle, tendons, and ligaments; skeleton; organs; and vasculature.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The development of cartilage (dark green) into bone in the skull, pelvis, hands, and feet, and the development of the vertebrae are shown for the newborn, 1-, and 5-year old phantoms. The arrows point to the regions of cartilage which decrease from the newborn model to the 5 year old.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

3D renderings of the female infant at different time frames of the cardiac and respiratory cycles. In the respiratory images, the dotted line indicates the height of the liver at end-expiration.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Imaging simulations performed using the 10 year old male XCAT phantom. PET (top), SPECT (middle), and CT (bottom) images are shown compared to data from a separate patient. Image planes of the reconstructed images are shown on the phantom model.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Coronal slices of simulated CT scans with their respective phantoms. Left to right, top to bottom: newborn female, 1-year-old male, 5-year-old female, 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old female.


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Height and mass values for ICRP 89 reference and for the selected patient CT data for each age group.

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List of structures in the new pediatric XCAT phantoms that are obtained using template models, through segmentation, or by using the MC-LDDMM transform.

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Tissue mass values in each age group for ICRP 89 values, phantom model values, and percent difference.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research