Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417
1.
1.D. R. Dance, A. K. Thilander, M. Sandborg, C. L. Skinner, I. A. Castellano, and G. A. Carlsson, “Influence of anode/filter material and tube potential on contrast, signal-to-noise ratio and average absorbed dose in mammography: A Monte Carlo study,” Br. J. Radiol. 73(874), 10561067 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.73.874.11271898
2.
2.P. Doyle, C. J. Martin, and D. Gentle, “Application of contrast-to-noise ratio in optimizing beam quality for digital chest radiography: Comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical simulations,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(11), 29532970 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/51/11/018
3.
3.P. Bernhardt, T. Mertelmeier, and M. Hoheisel, “X-ray spectrum optimization of full-field digital mammography: Simulation and phantom study,” Med. Phys. 33(11), 43374349 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.2351951
4.
4.M. B. Williams et al., “Optimization of exposure parameters in full field digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 24142423 (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.2912177
5.
5.P. Toroi, F. Zanca, K. C. Young, C. van Ongeval, G. Marchal, and H. Bosmans, “Experimental investigation on the choice of the tungsten/rho dium anode/filter combination for an amorphous selenium-based digital mammography system,” Eur. Radiol. 17(9), 23682375 (2007).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-006-0574-x
6.
6.P. Baldelli, N. Phelan, and G. Egan, “Investigation of the effect of anode/filter materials on the dose and image quality of a digital mammography system based on an amorphous selenium flat panel detector,” Br. J. Radiol. 83(988), 290295 (2010).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr/60404532
7.
7.R. Klausz and N. Shramchenko, “Dose to population as a metric in the design of optimised exposure control in digital mammography,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 114(1-3), 369374 (2005).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nch579
8.
8.N. W. Marshall, “An examination of automatic exposure control regimes for two digital radiography systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(15), 46454670 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/54/15/002
9.
9.R. F. Wagner and D. G. Brown, “Unified SNR analysis of medical imaging systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 489518 (1985).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/30/6/001
10.
10.European Commission, European Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening, The European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening. Part B: Digital Mammography, 4th ed. (European Commission, Luxembourg, 2006).
11.
11.P. Monnin, N. W. Marshall, H. Bosmans, F. O. Bochud, and F. R. Verdun, “Image quality assessment in digital mammography: Part II. NPWE as a validated alternative for contrast detail analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 42214238 (2011).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/56/14/003
12.
12.E. G. Christodoulou, M. M. Goodsit, H. P. Chan, and T. W. Hepburn, “Phototimer setup for CR imaging,” Med. Phys. 27(12), 26522658 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1319522
13.
13.W. Huang, R. Van Metter, C.-Y.  J. Yang, and J. Yorkston, “Configuration of AEC kVp dependence for digital radiography systems,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651017-1651017-10 (2007).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.714377
14.
14.N. W. Marshall, “Detective quantum efficiency measured as a function of energy for two full-field digital mammography systems,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(9), 28452861 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/54/9/017
15.
15.E. Salvagnini, H. Bosmans, L. Struelens, and N. W. Marshall, “Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics,” Med. Phys. 40(10), 101916(16pp.) (2013).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4820362
16.
16.E. Salvagnini, H. Bosmans, L. Struelens, and N. W. Marshall, “Effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) and effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ) for system optimization purposes in digital mammography,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83130H (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.911193
17.
17.J. H. Siewerdsen, I. A. Cunningham, and D. A. Jaffray, “A framework for noise-power spectrum analysis of multidimensional images,” Med. Phys. 29(11), 26552671 (2002).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1513158
18.
18.K. C. Young, J. J. H. Cook, J. M. Oduko, and H. Bosmans, “Comparison of software and human observers in reading images of the CDMAM test object to assess digital mammography systems,” Proc. SPIE 6142, 614206-1614206-13 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.653296
19.
19.L. M. Warren et al., “Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 39(6), 32023213 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4718571
20.
20.A. Mackenzie, “Validation of correction methods for the non-linear response of digital radiography systems,” Br. J. Radiol. 81(964), 341345 (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr/57141560
21.
21.IEC Publication, Medical Electrical Equipment—Characteristics of Digital X-Ray Imaging Devices: Part 1–2. Determination of the Detective Quantum Efficiency—Detectors used in Mammography, IEC 62220 (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007).
22.
22.A. E. Burgess, “Statistically defined backgrounds: Performance of a modified nonprewhitening observer model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 11(4), 12371242 (1994).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.11.001237
23.
24.
24.D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatio-temporal threshold surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69(10), 13401349 (1979).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.69.001340
25.
25.E. Samei, M. J. Flynn, and D. A. Reimann, “A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device,” Med. Phys. 25(1), 102113 (1998).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.598165
26.
26.N. W. Marshall, “A comparison between objective and subjective image quality measurements for a full field digital mammography system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(10), 24412463 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/51/10/006
27.
27.P. Baldelli, N. Phelan, and G. Egan, “A novel method for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation of digital mammography detectors,” Eur. Radiol. 19(9), 22752285 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-009-1409-3
28.
28.S. Richard, J. H. Siewerdsen, D. A. Jaffray, D. J. Moseley, and B. Bakhtiar, “Generalized DQE analysis of radiographic and dual-energy imaging using flat-panel detectors,” Med. Phys. 32(5), 13971413 (2005).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1901203
29.
29.R. van Engen et al., “Digital mammography update. European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening. S1, part 1: Acceptance and constancy testing,” in European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (European Commission, Office for Official Publications of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2012).
30.
30.J. Jacobs, F. Zanca, and H. Bosmans, “A novel platform to simplify human observer performance experiments in clinical reading environments,” Proc. SPIE 7966, 79960B (2011).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.878322
31.
31.D. R. Dance, C. L. Skinner, K. C. Young, J. R. Beckett, and C. J. Kotre, “Additional factors for the estimation of mean glandular breast dose using the UK mammography dosimetry protocol,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(11), 32253240 (2000).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/45/11/308
32.
32.D. Rimkus and N. A. Baily, “Quantum noise in detectors,” Med. Phys. 10(4), 470471 (1983).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.595393
33.
33.C. J. Kotre, “The effect of background structure on the detection of low contrast objects in mammography,” Br. J. Radiol. 71(851), 11621167 (1998).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.71.851.10434911
34.
34.W. Huda, K. M. Ogden, E. M. Scalzetti, D. R. Dance, and E. A. Bertrand, “How do lesion size and random noise affect detection performance in digital mammography?,” Acad. Radiol. 13(11), 13551366 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2006.07.011
35.
35.J. G. Mainprize, X. Wang, M. Ge, and M. J. Yaffe, “Towards a quantitative measure of radiographic masking by dense tissue in mammography,” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Digital Mammography (IWDM) (Springer, Switzerland, 2014), pp. 181186.
36.
36.M. J. Yaffe et al., “The myth of the 50-50 breast,” Med. Phys. 36(12), 54375443 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3250863
37.
37.T. Niklason et al., “Digital tomosynthesis,” Radiology 205(2), 399406 (1997).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.205.2.9356620
38.
38.E. A. Berns, R. E. Hendrick, and G. R. Cutter, “Performance comparison of full field digital mammography to screen-film mammography in clinical practice,” Med. Phys. 29, 830834 (2002).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.1472497
39.
39.National Breast Cancer Screening Service, The Commissioning and Routine Testing of Mammographic X-Ray System, Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, York, 2005.
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417
Loading
/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417
2015-06-09
2016-09-28

Abstract

The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses.

The default “” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness () in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., ≤ 1.10 m gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (), calculated detectability (′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers.

The default AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and ′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (′), respectively. Threshold gold thickness (0.1 mm diameter disc) for the default AEC mode in the homogeneous background increased by 62% in going from 20 to 70 mm PMMA thickness; in the structured background, the increase was 39%. Implementation of the modified mode entailed an increase in mAs at PMMA thicknesses >40 mm; the modified AEC held threshold gold thickness constant above 40 mm PMMA with a maximum deviation of 5% in the homogeneous background and 3% in structured background. SDNR was also held constant with a maximum deviation of 4% and 2% for the homogeneous and the structured background, respectively. These results were obtained with an increase of MGD between 15% and 73% going from 40 to 70 mm PMMA thickness.

This work has proposed and implemented a modified AEC mode, tailored toward constant detectability at larger breast thickness, i.e., above 40 mm PMMA equivalent. The desired improvement in object detectability could be obtained while maintaining MGD within the European guidelines achievable dose limit. (A study designed to verify the performance of the modified mode using more clinically realistic data is currently underway.)

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/1.4921417.html;jsessionid=ibxtRt-6YdMprSw756iPwV6j.x-aip-live-02?itemId=/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah&containerItemId=content/aapm/journal/medphys
true
true

Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
/content/realmedia?fmt=ahah&adPositionList=
&advertTargetUrl=//oascentral.aip.org/RealMedia/ads/&sitePageValue=online.medphys.org/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417&pageURL=http://scitation.aip.org/content/aapm/journal/medphys/42/7/10.1118/1.4921417'
Right1,Right2,Right3,