No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
A Fourier approach to pulse pile-up in photon-counting x-ray detectors
2.R. P. Gardner and L. Wielopolski, “A generalized method for correcting pulse-height spectra for the peak pile-up effect due to double sum pulses: Part I. Predicting spectral distortion for arbitrary pulse shapes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 140, 289–296 (1977).
3.K. Taguchi, E. C. Frey, X. Wang, J. S. Iwanczyk, and W. C. Barber, “An analytical model of the effects of pulse pileup on the energy spectrum recorded by energy resolved photon counting x-ray detectors,” Med. Phys. 37, 3957–3969 (2010).
4.K. Taguchi, M. Zhang, E. C. Frey, X. Wang, J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygard, N. E. Hartsough, B. M. W. Tsui, and W. C. Barber, “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38, 1089–1102 (2011).
9.A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, International ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2002).
10.J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4031–4047 (2008).
11.R. Steadman, C. Herrmann, O. Mulhens, D. G. Maeding, J. Colley, T. Firlit, R. Luhta, M. Chappo, B. Harwood, and D. Kosty, “ChromAIX: A high-rate energy-resolving photon-counting ASIC for spectral computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 762220 (2010).
12.D. M. Tucker, G. T. Barnes, and D. P. Chakraborty, “Semiempirical model for generating tungsten target x-ray spectra,” Med. Phys. 18, 211–218 (1991).
Article metrics loading...
An analytic Fourier approach to predict the expected number of counts registered in a photon-counting detector subject to pulse pile-up for arbitrary photon flux, detector response function, and pulse-shape is presented. The analysis provides a complete forward model for energy-sensitive, photon-counting x-ray detectors for spectralcomputed tomography.
The formalism of the stochastic theory of the expected frequency of level crossings of shot noise processes is applied to the pulse pile-up effect and build on a recently published analytic Fourier representation of the level crossing frequency of shot noise processes with piece-wise continuous kernels with jumps.
The general analytic result is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation for pulses of the form g(t) = e−t/τ (t > 0) and a Gaussian detector response function. The Monte Carlo simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytic predictions of photon counts within the numerical accuracy of the calculations.
The phenomenon of pulse pile-up is identified with the level-crossing problem of shot noise processes and an exact, analytic formula for the expected number of counts in energy-sensitive, photon-counting x-ray detectors for arbitrary photon flux, response function, and pulse-shapes is derived. The framework serves as a theoretical foundation for future works on pulse pile-up.
Full text loading...
Most read this month