Volume 41, Issue 10, October 2014
Index of content:
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4885996View Description Hide Description
- RADIATION THERAPY PHYSICS
Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894728View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes.Methods:
Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable “air cap”. A set of output ratios ( ) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is “correction-free” in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring values from the SFD to unknown diodes was tested by comparing the experimentally transferred values for unmodified PTWe and EDGEe diodes to Monte Carlo simulated values.Results:
1.0 mm of air was required to make the PTWe diode correction-free. This modified diode (PTWeair) produced output factors equivalent to those in water at all field sizes (5–50 mm). The optimal air thickness required for the EDGEe diode was found to be 0.6 mm. The modified diode (EDGEeair) produced output factors equivalent to those in water, except at field sizes of 8 and 10 mm where it measured approximately 2% greater than the relative dose to water. The experimentally calculated for both the PTWe and the EDGEe diodes (without air) matched Monte Carlo simulated results, thus proving that it is feasible to transfer from one commercially available detector to another using experimental methods and the recommended experimental setup.Conclusions:
It is possible to create a diode which does not require corrections for small field output factor measurements. This has been performed and verified experimentally. The ability of a detector to be “correction-free” depends strongly on its design and composition. A nonwater-equivalent detector can only be “correction-free” if competing perturbations of the beam cancel out at all field sizes. This should not be confused with true water equivalency of a detector.
A system to use electromagnetic tracking for the quality assurance of brachytherapy catheter digitization41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894710View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
To investigate the use of a system using electromagnetic tracking (EMT), post-processing and an error-detection algorithm for detecting errors and resolving uncertainties in high-dose-rate brachytherapy catheter digitization for treatment planning.Methods:
EMT was used to localize 15 catheters inserted into a phantom using a stepwise acquisition technique. Five distinct acquisition experiments were performed. Noise associated with the acquisition was calculated. The dwell location configuration was extracted from the EMT data. A CT scan of the phantom was performed, and five distinct catheter digitization sessions were performed. No a priori registration of the CT scan coordinate system with the EMT coordinate system was performed. CT-based digitization was automatically extracted from the brachytherapy plan DICOM files (CT), and rigid registration was performed between EMT and CT dwell positions. EMT registration error was characterized in terms of the mean and maximum distance between corresponding EMT and CT dwell positions per catheter. An algorithm for error detection and identification was presented. Three types of errors were systematically simulated: swap of two catheter numbers, partial swap of catheter number identification for parts of the catheters (mix), and catheter-tip shift. Error-detection sensitivity (number of simulated scenarios correctly identified as containing an error/number of simulated scenarios containing an error) and specificity (number of scenarios correctly identified as not containing errors/number of correct scenarios) were calculated. Catheter identification sensitivity (number of catheters correctly identified as erroneous across all scenarios/number of erroneous catheters across all scenarios) and specificity (number of catheters correctly identified as correct across all scenarios/number of correct catheters across all scenarios) were calculated. The mean detected and identified shift was calculated.Results:
The maximum noise ±1 standard deviation associated with the EMT acquisitions was 1.0 ± 0.1 mm, and the mean noise was 0.6 ± 0.1 mm. Registration of all the EMT and CT dwell positions was associated with a mean catheter error of 0.6 ± 0.2 mm, a maximum catheter error of 0.9 ± 0.4 mm, a mean dwell error of 1.0 ± 0.3 mm, and a maximum dwell error of 1.3 ± 0.7 mm. Error detection and catheter identification sensitivity and specificity of 100% were observed for swap, mix and shift (≥2.6 mm for error detection; ≥2.7 mm for catheter identification) errors. A mean detected shift of 1.8 ± 0.4 mm and a mean identified shift of 1.9 ± 0.4 mm were observed.Conclusions:
Registration of the EMT dwell positions to the CT dwell positions was possible with a residual mean error per catheter of 0.6 ± 0.2 mm and a maximum error for any dwell of 1.3 ± 0.7 mm. These low residual registration errors show that quality assurance of the general characteristics of the catheters and of possible errors affecting one specific dwell position is possible. The sensitivity and specificity of the catheter digitization verification algorithm was 100% for swap and mix errors and for shifts ≥2.6 mm. On average, shifts ≥1.8 mm were detected, and shifts ≥1.9 mm were detected and identified.
- RADIATION IMAGING PHYSICS
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894724View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
To investigate the feasibility of an accurate measurement of water, lipid, and protein composition of breast tissue using a photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) with spectral distortion corrections.Methods:
Thirty-eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based photon-counting spectral CT system at 100 kV. The energy-resolving capability of the photon-counting detector was used to separate photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose for each breast ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 mGy. Two spectral distortion correction techniques were implemented, respectively, on the raw images to correct the nonlinear detector response due to pulse pileup and charge-sharing artifacts. Dual energy decomposition was then used to characterize each breast in terms of water, lipid, and protein content. In the meantime, the breasts were chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein components to provide a gold standard for comparison with dual energy decomposition results.Results:
The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was determined by comparing to the reference standard from chemical analysis. The averaged root-mean-square error in percentage composition was reduced from 15.5% to 2.8% after spectral distortion corrections.Conclusions:
The results indicate that spectral CT can be used to quantify the water, lipid, and protein content in breast tissue. The accuracy of the compositional analysis depends on the applied spectral distortion correction technique.
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894726View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
The authors have recently developed a novel 4D-MRI technique for imaging organ respiratory motion employing cine acquisition in the axial plane and using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. A potential disadvantage associated with axial image acquisition is the space-dependent phase shift in the superior–inferior (SI) direction, i.e., different axial slice positions reach the respiratory peak at different respiratory phases. Since respiratory motion occurs mostly in the SI and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, sagittal image acquisition, which embeds motion information in these two directions, is expected to be more robust and less affected by phase-shift than axial image acquisition. This study aims to develop and evaluate a 4D-MRI technique using sagittal image acquisition.Methods:
The authors evaluated axial BA and sagittal BA using both 4D-CT images (11 cancer patients) and cine MR images (6 healthy volunteers and 1 cancer patient) by comparing their corresponding space-dependent phase-shift in the SI direction and in the lateral direction , respectively. To evaluate sagittal BA 4D-MRI method, a motion phantom study and a digital phantom study were performed. Additionally, six patients who had cancer(s) in the liver were prospectively enrolled in this study. For each patient, multislice sagittal MR images were acquired for 4D-MRI reconstruction. 4D retrospective sorting was performed based on respiratory phases. Single-slice cine MRI was also acquired in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes across the tumor center from which tumor motion trajectories in the SI, AP, and medial–lateral (ML) directions were extracted and used as references from comparison. All MR images were acquired in a 1.5 T scanner using a steady-state precession sequence (frame rate ∼ 3 frames/s).Results:
4D-CT scans showed that was significantly greater than (p-value: 0.012); the median phase-shift was 16.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Body surface motion measurement from axial and sagittal MR cines also showed was significantly greater than . The median and was 11.0% and 9.2% (p-value = 0.008), respectively. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI matched with those from single-slice cine MRI: the mean (±SD) absolute differences in tumor motion amplitude between the two were 1.5 ± 1.6 mm, 2.1 ± 1.9 mm, and 1.1 ± 1.0 mm in the SI, ML, and AP directions from this patient study.Conclusions:
Space-dependent phase shift is less problematic for sagittal acquisition than for axial acquisition. 4D-MRI using sagittal acquisition was successfully carried out in patients with hepatic tumors.
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894812View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Survival for high-grade gliomas is poor, at least partly explained by intratumoral heterogeneity contributing to treatment resistance. Radiological evaluation of treatment response is in most cases limited to assessment of tumor size months after the initiation of therapy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its estimate of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been widely investigated, as it reflects tumor cellularity and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate texture analysis of ADC images in conjunction with multivariate image analysis as a means for identification of pretreatment imaging biomarkers.Methods:
Twenty-three consecutive high-grade glioma patients were treated with radiotherapy (2 Gy/60 Gy) with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. ADC maps and T1-weighted anatomical images with and without contrast enhancement were collected prior to treatment, and (residual) tumor contrast enhancement was delineated. A gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis was performed on the ADC maps in a cuboid encapsulating the tumor in coronal, sagittal, and transversal planes, giving a total of 60 textural descriptors for each tumor. In addition, similar examinations and analyses were performed at day 1, week 2, and week 6 into treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce dimensionality of the data, and the five largest components (scores) were used in subsequent analyses. MRI assessment three months after completion of radiochemotherapy was used for classifying tumor progression or regression.Results:
The score scatter plots revealed that the first, third, and fifth components of the pretreatment examinations exhibited a pattern that strongly correlated to survival. Two groups could be identified: one with a median survival after diagnosis of 1099 days and one with 345 days, p = 0.0001.Conclusions:
By combining PCA and texture analysis, ADC texture characteristics were identified, which seems to hold pretreatment prognostic information, independent of known prognostic factors such as age, stage, and surgical procedure. These findings encourage further studies with a larger patient cohort.
High-resolution three-dimensional visualization of the rat spinal cord microvasculature by synchrotron radiation micro-CT41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894704View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the spinal cord microvasculature has been limited by the lack of an effective high-resolution imaging technique. In this study, synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT), a novel imaging technique based on absorption imaging, was evaluated with regard to the detection of the 3D morphology of the rat spinal cord microvasculature.Methods:
Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this ex vivo study. After contrast agent perfusion, their spinal cords were isolated and scanned using conventional x-rays, conventional micro-CT (CµCT), and SRµCT.Results:
Based on contrast agent perfusion, the microvasculature of the rat spinal cord was clearly visualized for the first time ex vivo in 3D by means of SRµCT scanning. Compared to conventional imaging techniques, SRµCT achieved higher resolution 3D vascular imaging, with the smallest vessel that could be distinguished approximately 7.4 μm in diameter. Additionally, a 3D pseudocolored image of the spinal cord microvasculature was generated in a single session of SRµCT imaging, which was conducive to detailed observation of the vessel morphology.Conclusions:
The results of this study indicated that SRµCT scanning could provide higher resolution images of the vascular network of the spinal cord. This modality also has the potential to serve as a powerful imaging tool for the investigation of morphology changes in the 3D angioarchitecture of the neurovasculature in preclinical research.
A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4895002View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image.Methods:
DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination.Results:
A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high.Conclusions:
A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.
Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: A Monte Carlo study41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4895004View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs).Methods:
A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results.Results:
Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81–100 keV, increased the FSDR up to a factor of 20, compared to 1 mm Pb, and further facilitated separation of gold XRF peaks from the scatter background.Conclusions:
A detailed MC model of an experimental benchtop XFCT system has been developed and validated. In exemplary calculations to illustrate the usefulness of this model, it was shown that potential use of quasimonochromatic spectra or judicious choice of filter material/thickness to tailor the spectrum of a polychromatic x-ray source can significantly improve the performance of benchtop XFCT, while considering trade-offs between FSDR and FNST. As demonstrated, the current MC model is a reliable and powerful computational tool that can greatly expedite the further development of a benchtop XFCT system for routine preclinical molecular imaging with GNPs and other metal probes.
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894733View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).Methods:
A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored.Results:
The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f 50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of 0.50) by ∼30% with corresponding improvement in DQE. The range in exposure and additive noise for which PCDs yield intrinsically higher DQE was quantified, showing performance advantages under conditions of very low-dose, high additive noise, and high fidelity rejection of coincident photons.Conclusions:
The model for PCD signal and noise performance agreed with measurements of detector signal, MTF, and NPS and provided a useful basis for understanding complex dependencies in PCD imaging performance and the potential advantages (and disadvantages) in comparison to EIDs as well as an important guide to task-based optimization in developing new PCD imaging systems.
- MAGNETIC RESONANCE PHYSICS
k-space sampling optimization for ultrashort TE imaging of cortical bone: Applications in radiation therapy planning and MR-based PET attenuation correction41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894709View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
The ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequence is a promising MR pulse sequence for imaging cortical bone which is otherwise difficult to image using conventional MR sequences and also poses strong attenuation for photons in radiation therapy and PET imaging. The authors report here a systematic characterization of cortical bone signal decay and a scanning time optimization strategy for the UTE sequence through k-space undersampling, which can result in up to a 75% reduction in acquisition time. Using the undersampled UTE imaging sequence, the authors also attempted to quantitatively investigate the MR properties of cortical bone in healthy volunteers, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using such a technique for generating bone-enhanced images which can be used for radiation therapy planning and attenuation correction with PET/MR.Methods:
An angularly undersampled, radially encoded UTE sequence was used for scanning the brains of healthy volunteers. Quantitative MR characterization of tissue properties, including water fraction and R2∗ = 1/T2∗, was performed by analyzing the UTE images acquired at multiple echo times. The impact of different sampling rates was evaluated through systematic comparison of the MR image quality, bone-enhanced image quality, image noise, water fraction, and R2∗ of cortical bone.Results:
A reduced angular sampling rate of the UTE trajectory achieves acquisition durations in proportion to the sampling rate and in as short as 25% of the time required for full sampling using a standard Cartesian acquisition, while preserving unique MR contrast within the skull at the cost of a minimal increase in noise level. The R2∗ of human skull was measured as 0.2–0.3 ms−1 depending on the specific region, which is more than ten times greater than the R2∗ of soft tissue. The water fraction in human skull was measured to be 60%–80%, which is significantly less than the >90% water fraction in brain. High-quality, bone-enhanced images can be generated using a reduced sampled UTE sequence with no visible compromise in image quality and they preserved bone-to-air contrast with as low as a 25% sampling rate.Conclusions:
This UTE strategy with angular undersampling preserves the image quality and contrast of cortical bone, while reducing the total scanning time by as much as 75%. The quantitative results of R2∗ and the water fraction of skull based on Dixon analysis of UTE images acquired at multiple echo times provide guidance for the clinical adoption and further parameter optimization of the UTE sequence when used for radiation therapy and MR-based PET attenuation correction.
- NUCLEAR MEDICINE PHYSICS
Detection and severity classification of extracardiac interference in 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4893501View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. When MPI studies are performed with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioactive tracer rubidium-82 chloride (82Rb), a small but non-negligible fraction of studies (∼10%) suffer from extracardiac interference: high levels of tracer uptake in structures adjacent to the heart which mask the true cardiac tracer uptake. At present, there are no clinically available options for automated detection or correction of this problem. This work presents an algorithm that detects and classifies the severity of extracardiac interference in 82Rb PET MPI images and reports the accuracy and failure rate of the method.Methods:
A set of 200 82Rb PET MPI images were reviewed by a trained nuclear cardiologist and interference severity reported on a four-class scale, from absent to severe. An automated algorithm was developed that compares uptake at the external border of the myocardium to three thresholds, separating the four interference severity classes. A minimum area of interference was required, and the search region was limited to that facing the stomach wall and spleen. Maximizing concordance (Cohen’s Kappa) and minimizing failure rate for the set of 200 clinician-read images were used to find the optimal population-based constants defining search limit and minimum area parameters and the thresholds for the algorithm. Tenfold stratified cross-validation was used to find optimal thresholds and report accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa).Results:
The algorithm was capable of detecting interference with a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity/specificity/Kappa of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00]/0.82 [0.66, 0.98]/0.79 [0.65, 0.92], and a failure rate of 1.0% ± 0.2%. The four-class overall Kappa was 0.72 [0.64, 0.81]. Separation of mild versus moderate-or-greater interference was performed with good accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/Kappa = 0.92 [0.86, 0.99]/0.86 [0.71, 1.00]/0.78 [0.64, 0.92]), while separation of moderate versus severe interference severity classes showed reduced sensitivity/Kappa but little change in specificity (sensitivity/specificity/Kappa = 0.83 [0.77, 0.88]/0.82 [0.77, 0.88]/0.65 [0.60, 0.70]). Specificity was greater than sensitivity for all interference classes. Algorithm execution time was <1 min.Conclusions:
The algorithm produced here has a low failure rate and high accuracy for detection of extracardiac interference in 82Rb PET MPI scans. It provides a fast, reliable, automated method for assessing severity of extracardiac interference.
- OPTICAL PHYSICS
41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894730View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system.Methods:
The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources.Results:
The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two-dimensional targeting of a light source in the mouse phantom based on optical imaging along the anterior/posterior direction was accurate to 0.55 mm. The mean square residual error in the normalized measured projected surface intensities versus the calculated normalized intensities ranged between 0.0016 and 0.006. Optimizing the position reduced this error from 0.00016 to 0.0004 with distances ranging between 0.7 and 1 mm between the actual and calculated position source positions.Conclusions:
The integration of optical imaging on an existing small animal irradiation platform has been accomplished. A targeting accuracy of 1 mm can be achieved in rigid, homogeneous phantoms. The combination of optical imaging with a CBCT image-guided small animal irradiator offers the potential to deliver functionally targeted dose distributions, as well as monitor spatial and temporal functional changes that occur with radiation therapy.
- ULTRASOUND PHYSICS
Vaporization dynamics of volatile perfluorocarbon droplets: A theoretical model and in vitro validation41(2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4894804View Description Hide DescriptionPurpose:
Perfluorocarbon (PFC) microdroplets, called phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs), are a promising tool in ultrasound imaging and therapy. Interest in PCCAs is motivated by the fact that they can be triggered to transition from the liquid state to the gas state by an externally applied acoustic pulse. This property opens up new approaches to applications in ultrasound medicine. Insight into the physics of vaporization of PFC droplets is vital for effective use of PCCAs and for anticipating bioeffects. PCCAs composed of volatile PFCs (with low boiling point) exhibit complex dynamic behavior: after vaporization by a short acoustic pulse, a PFC droplet turns into a vapor bubble which undergoes overexpansion and damped radial oscillation until settling to a final diameter. This behavior has not been well described theoretically so far. The purpose of our study is to develop an improved theoretical model that describes the vaporization dynamics of volatile PFC droplets and to validate this model by comparison with in vitro experimental data.Methods:
The derivation of the model is based on applying the mathematical methods of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics to the process of the acoustic vaporization of PFC droplets. The used approach corrects shortcomings of the existing models. The validation of the model is carried out by comparing simulated results with in vitro experimental data acquired by ultrahigh speed video microscopy for octafluoropropane (OFP) and decafluorobutane (DFB) microdroplets of different sizes.Results:
The developed theory allows one to simulate the growth of a vapor bubble inside a PFC droplet until the liquid PFC is completely converted into vapor, and the subsequent overexpansion and damped oscillations of the vapor bubble, including the influence of an externally applied acoustic pulse. To evaluate quantitatively the difference between simulated and experimental results, the L2-norm errors were calculated for all cases where the simulated and experimental results are compared. These errors were found to be in the ranges of 0.043–0.067 and 0.037–0.088 for OFP and DFB droplets, respectively. These values allow one to consider agreement between the simulated and experimental results as good. This agreement is attained by varying only 2 of 16 model parameters which describe the material properties of gaseous and liquid PFCs and the liquid surrounding the PFC droplet. The fitting parameters are the viscosity and the surface tension of the surrounding liquid. All other model parameters are kept invariable.Conclusions:
The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results suggests that the developed model is able to correctly describe the key physical processes underlying the vaporization dynamics of volatile PFC droplets. The necessity of varying the parameters of the surrounding liquid for fitting the experimental curves can be explained by the fact that the parts of the initial phospholipid shell of PFC droplets remain on the surface of vapor bubbles at the oscillatory stage and their presence affects the bubble dynamics.