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Studying collisions in the general physics laboratory with quadrature light emitting diode sensors
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22.The quadrature linear LED sensors (HEDS-9200-R00) can be obtained from US Digital, www.usdigital.com, 360.260.2468.
23.The 200 lines/in. mylar strips (24 by 1/2 in., LIN-200-24) can be obtained from US Digital, www.usdigital.com, 360.260.2468.
24.LABVIEW™ is available from National Instruments Corporation, www.natinst.com, 512.794.0100.
25.The distributor’s website (www.usdigital.com/knowledge/body_glossary.shtml) and the National Instrument Website (www.ni.com/sensors/quad.html) contain brief descriptions of the quadrature technique for position measurements.
26.The high-speed counter/timer board, model 6602, was produced by National Instruments Corporation, www.natinst.com.
27.ORIGIN, data analysis and graphing software, is available from OriginLab™ Corporation, www.OriginLab.com.
28.In fact the potential energy stored in the bumpers can be determined, albeit with some difficulty, and energy conservation can be shown. Assuming a linear response for the bumpers (because the compression is not large in these collisions) a spring constant can be determined by measuring the position of the carts with the computer as various forces are applied to push the carts together. The data of the collision itself can be used to determine the amount of compression. This compression can be determined by examining the arbitrary measured distances between the two carts. If there were no compression, this difference of the two positions would always be constant during the contact period. It is not and this allows one to determine the size of the compression.
29.The 1000 strips/turn rotary codewheels (HEDS-6100-B06) are available from Newark Electronics, www.newark.com. The quadrature rotary LED sensors (HEDS-9000-B00) can be obtained from US Digital, www.usdigital.com.
30.The Sub-Cub-D is manufactured by Red Lion Controls and is available from Digikey Electronics, 701 Brooks Ave. South, P.O. Box 667, Thief River Falls, MN 56701-0677.
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