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A study of electric dipole radiation via scattering of polarized laser light
1.See 〈http://www.physics.emich.edu/molab/MOLCourse.html〉 to find a description of this course or ask for a preprint of the Modern Optics Lab Manual by Natthi L. Sharma and Ernest R. Behringer (1999).
2.D. E. Shaw, M. J. Hones, and F. J. Wunderlich, “Quantitative, molecular light-scattering experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 41, 1229–1232 (1973).
3.R. M. Drake and J. E. Gordon, “Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 955–962 (1985).
4.E. K. Hobbie and Lipiin Sung, “Rayleigh-Gans scattering from polydisperse colloidal suspensions,” Am. J. Phys. 64, 1298–1303 (1996).
5.I. Weiner, M. Rust, and T. D. Donnelly, “Particle size determination: An undergraduate lab in Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 129–136 (2001).
6.C. L. Adler and J. A. Lock, “A simple demonstration of Mie scattering using an overhead projector,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 91–93 (2002).
7.Athanasios Aridgides, Ralph N. Pinnock, and Donald F. Collins, “Observation of Rayleigh scattering and airglow,” Am. J. Phys. 44, 244–247 (1976).
8.A. J. Cox, Alan J. DeWeerd, and Jennifer Linden, “An experiment to measure Mie and Rayleigh total cross sections,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 620–625 (2002).
9.Craig F. Bohren, “Multiple scattering of light and some of its observable consequences,” Am. J. Phys. 55, 524–533 (1987).
10.T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, “Molecular Scattering of Ruby-Laser Light,” Phys. Rev. 137, A369–A381 (1965).
11.Mark P. Silverman, Waves and Grains (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1998), pp. 288–290.
12.Eugene Hecht, Optics (Addison–Wesley, San Francisco, 2002), Secs. 3.5 and 4.2, especially Fig. 4.8.
13.John D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999), Chaps. 9 and 10.
14.C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).
15.G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optic trüber medien speziell kolloidaler metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377–445 (1908);
15.See also H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), pp. 176–178.
16.David J. Griiffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics (Prentice–Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999), Sec. 11.1, or Ref. 13, Sec. 9.2.
17.Equation (4) is true even for a single accelerated charge as discussed by R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics (Addison–Wesley, Reading, MA, 1964), Vol. 1, Sec. 28.2 and Vol. 2, Sec. 21.1.
17.Also see Hans C. Ohanian, “Electromagnetic radiation fields: A simple approach via field lines,” Am. J. Phys. 48, 170–171 (1980). Equation (4) can also be derived by taking the nonrelativistic limit of the radiation fields obtained from the Lienard–Wiechert potentials (see Ref. 16, Sec. 11.2.1). Note that the limit for an arbitrarily moving charge is equivalent to the limit for the case of oscillatory motion of a dipole source of finite size Equation (4) is more general than Eq. (1), and we use it to understand other related phenomena.
18.A simple qualitative derivation of Eq. (4) is also given by Frank S. Crawford, Jr., Waves, Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 3 (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1968), Sec. 7.5. This is a wonderful series to read in addition to the Feynman Lectures.
19.Lord Rayleigh, “On the transmission of light through an atmosphere containing small Particles in suspension, and on the origin of the blue of the sky,” Philos. Mag. 47, 375–384 (1899).
20.We used a model 818-SL detector along with model 840-C handheld, backlit optical power meter ($1440), Newport Corporation, 1791 Deere Ave., Irvine, CA 92714.
21.A polarized, single transverse mode laser is required instead of using a randomly polarized laser with an outside polarizer. Although in a polarized laser all the oscillating modes have the same polarization, usually with better than 500:1 polarization purity, in a randomly polarized laser adjacent axial modes are orthogonally polarized and the output is a time-varying mix of modes of different polarizations. Using a polarizer may decrease the power output of a randomly polarized laser to less than half and will not provide the required polarization purity. Also, the laser must be warmed up for at least half an hour to acquire thermal stability or until it gives a stable (within 5%) output before any measurements. Cylindrical laser heads are recommended because they reach thermal equilibrium quickly and are more thermally stable than bare laser tubes. We used a 10-mW polarized He–Ne laser with quoted polarization purity better than 500:1 and maximum mode sweep of 2%. The mode sweep is related to power stability. The model number is MG 05LHP991 (Melles Griot, 1770 Kettering Street, Irvine, CA 92614).
22.We used a Side-On Hamamatsu R928 photomultiplier tube with model C6270 HV Power Supply Socket Assembly (Hamamatsu, 360 Foothill Road, P.O. Box 6910, Bridgewater, NJ 08807-0910), and a PR 1121 photomultiplier tube Housing (Product for Research, 88 Holten St., Danvers, MA 01923).
23.Kaleidagraph, Synergy Software, 2457 Perkiomen Ave., Reading, PA 19606 〈http://www.synergy.com〉.
24.Pieter Walstra and Robert Jenness, Dairy Chemistry and Physics (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 2.
25.Dairy Technology: Principles of Milk Properties and Processes, edited by Pieter Walstra (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Vol. 90, p. 128.
26.These photodiode-amplifier chips (OPT202) are sold by Burr-Brown for about $8.00 through their distributors, Burr Brown Corp., 6730 S. Tucson Blvd., Tucson, AZ 35706.
27.This variation was suggested by Dan Spiegel during the 1999 Summer Meeting of the AAPT at Trinity University.
28.The radiation sweeps around like a locomotive’s headlight as the particle goes around the circle. It is nicely illustrated in Figs. 8.8 and 8.9 in M. A. Herald and J. B. Marion, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation (Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, 1995).
29.See Ref. 13, Sec. 14.3.
30.See Ref. 18, pp. 415–418.
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