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Enhancing conceptual change using argumentative essays
1.C. S. Kalman, S. Morris, C. Cottin, and R. Gordon, “Promoting conceptual change using collaborative groups in quantitative gateway courses,” Am. J. Phys. 67, S45–S51 (1999).
2.P. Hewson and M. Hewson, “The role of conceptual conflict in conceptual change and the design of scientific instruction,” Instructional Sci.13, 1–13 (1984).
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4.R. Berg, The Video Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations (The Education Group, Los Angeles, CA, 1992).
5.R. J. Sternberg, “Thinking style keys to understanding students,” Phi Delta Kappan (1), 366–371 (1990).
6.Craig E. Nelson, “Critical thinking and collaborative learning,” in Collaborative Learning: Underlying Processes and Effective Techniques, edited by Keris Bosworth and Sharon J. Hamilton (Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series, San Francisco, CA, 1964).
7.P. Feyerabend, Against Method (Verso, New York, 1993), 3rd ed. These quotes also are found in the first edition published in 1975.
8.For more details on Feyerabend’s analysis, its relationship to conceptual change models and critical thinking, see C. S. Kalman, “Developing critical thinking in undergraduate courses: A philosophical approach,” Sci. & Educ. 11, 83–94 (2002).
9.G. J. Posner, K. A. Strike, P. W. Hewson, and W. A. Gertzog, “Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change,” Sci. Educ. 66, 211–227 (1982).
9.These authors divide the question, how do we produce conceptual change, into two parts: Under what conditions does one central concept come to be replaced by another? What are the features of a conceptual ecology that govern the selection of new concepts?
10.D. Hestenes, M. Wells, and G. Swackhamer, “Force concept inventory,” Phys. Teach. 30, 141–158 (1992).
11.M. A. Stephens, “EDF statistics for goodness of fit and some comparisons,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69, 730–737 (1974).
12.W. L. Hays, Statistics for the Social Sciences (Holt Rinehart Winston, New York, 1988), 4th ed.
13.G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods (Iowa State U.P., Ames, IA, 1989), 8th ed.
14.H. Levene, “Robust tests for equality of variance,” in Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling, edited by I. Olkin, G. G. Sudhish, H. Wassily, W. G. Madow, and H. B. Mann (Stanford U.P., Palo Alto, CA, 1960), pp. 278–292.
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