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Why the near field radiation from a large distributed source is independent of position
1.J. Elster and H. Geitel, “The farther analogy in the electrical behavior of the natural air and in the air made abnormally conductive by means of Becquerel’s radiation,” Phys. Z.0369-982X 2, 590–593 (1900).
2.C. T. R. Wilson, “On the leakage of electricity through dust-free air,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc.0068-6735 11, 32 (1900).
3.M. W. Friedlander, Cosmic Rays (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, MA, 1989), p. 6,
3.describes Father Thomas Wolf and the Eiffel Tower. See also A. M. Hillas, Cosmic Rays (Pergamon P, New York, 1972), p. 3, for additional numbers.
4.V. F. Hess, “Uber den Ursprung der durchdringenden Strahlung (Over the origin of penetrating radiation),” Phys. Z.0369-982X 14, 610–617 (1913).
6.D. Halliday, R. Resnick, and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2005), pp. 587–591.
7.G. Mosca and P. Tipler, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 5th ed. (Freeman, New York, 2004), pp. 688–689.
9.Glenn F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, 3rd ed. (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 1989), p. 757. Chapter 20 has an excellent discussion on background radiation.
10.P. Theodorsson, Measurement of Weak Radioactivity (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996). A unique book that discusses background from soil, granite, and other unique sources, p. 66, and the weak cosmic contribution, pp. 121–133.
11.P. Bevington and D. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003), p. 146.
12.R. Arndt and M. MacGregor, “Nucleon-nucleon phase shift analysis by chi-squared minimization,” in Methods of Computational Physics, edited by R. L. Becker (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 6, pp. 253–296.
, offers a highly portable PMCA with 76 by
at exceptional resolution. It is unique in that the high voltage is generated in the low mass tube base powered by two AA batteries. These batteries are placed far from the detector in the PMCA unit, which houses the multi-channel analyzer. All controls are from an external laptop that may be removed during measurements to further reduce the influence of the mass of the detection system on the surroundings being measured. The package is an outgrowth of space instrumentation projects such as ROVER, with a minimal mass and probably the lowest portable power consumption available.
14.Nicholas Tsoulfanidis, Measurement and Detection of Radiation, 2nd ed. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, DC, 1995), pp. 267–288. Reference 9, pp. 312–342, also has a good discussion on response functions.
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